Cat intelligence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cat intelligence is the innate capacity that the domesticated cat has to exhibit qualities indicative of intelligence. This includes learning, problem solving, adaptability and perhaps other faculties demonstrated by observation and empirical research; shown to be feline capacity to acquire new behavior techniques that apply previously acquired knowledge to new situations, communicate needs and desires within a social group, and respond to training cues. Identifying this ability or quality is a province of the comparative sciences.

Definition of intelligence[edit]

...In proportion to his size, man has the largest brain of all animals, and the moistest....[off-topic?][1]

The WAIS test is a measure of intelligence in adult homo sapiens. The test scores on four criteria [ verbal comprehension ], [ perceptual organisation ], [ working memory [2]] and [ processing speed ]. [3] The cat's encephalization quotient is 1.[4]

Brain size and surface area[edit]

File:Cat brain.jpg
The brain of a cat

Main article Neuroscience and intelligence

The whole is other than the sum of the parts - Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler [5][6][7][8]

The brain size of the average cat is 5 centimetres in length and 30 grams. Since the average cat is 60 cm long and 3.3 kg,[9] the brain makes up 1/12 of its length and 1/110 of its mass. Thus, the average cat's brain accounts for 0.9 percent of its total body mass, compared to 2 percent of total body mass in the average human. The surface area of a cat's cerebral cortex is approximately 83 cm². The modern human cerebral cortex is about 2500 cm².[10][11][12] Analysis of cat brains have identified the formal qualities; that cortico-cortical networks are, possessing modular organization, with numerous alternate processing pathways and hubs with many neural connections.[13] The cat brain contains (so far identified in this article) a thalamus[14][15] (perceptual organisation) and lateral geniculate nucleus,[16] hippocampus ( possibly(ed.) working memory dependent on a cross-over definition of the term ), [17] amigdala (verbal comprehension)[18] frontal lobes [3.0-3.5% of the total brain (humans 25%)],[19][20][21] corpus callosum[22][23] and anterior commisure,[24] pineal gland, [25] caudate nucleus ( possibly(ed.) working memory) , Septal nuclei, and Midbrain. [26] The feline brain (and that of humans) has a surface folding ( are gyrencephalic [27] ).[28] According to researchers at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, the physical structure of human brains and that of cats are very similar; both have the same lobes in the cerebral cortex (the "seat" of intelligence). [29]

A study (Grouse et al 1979) ascertained the neuroplasticity of kittens brains, with respect to control of visual stimulus correlated with changes in RNA structures.[30] In a later study it was found that cats possess visual-recognition memory (Okujava et al 2005),[31] and have flexibility of cerebral encoding from visual information, adaptability corresponding to changing environmental stimuli (Fiset & Doré 1996).[32] Although experimental results seemed to indicate that cats have no capacity for object permanence, as defined through investigation by J.Piaget with infants (Doré 1990),[33] further research made to identify a similar factor of cognition (Dumas 1992) showed behaviour indicative of object permanence cognition, although of a different type to that identified initially by Piaget.[34][35] Further research (Heishman,Conant,Pasnak 1995) showed that the animal has an awareness of objects not directly available to sight, and also sensory-motor intelligence comparable with a two-year old child.[36] In experimental conditions the memory of a cat was demonstrated as having an information-retention or recall, of a duration totalling as much as 16 hours (Maier & Schneirla).[37]

Suggested method : Dietary requirement,environment enhancement,[edit]

Main article:Cat food

For the optimum health and functioning [38][39][40]of the brain a cat would require especifically manganese, potassium, Vitamin D,Vitamin B1,and B6 , secondarily calcium, sodium, magnesium, Vitamin A, and the optimum nutritionally balanced diet including all the required nutrients, also with uninterrupted sleep.

Computer simulation of the cat brain[edit]

We see him only the way a louse sitting upon him would [41]

In computing terms the cat-brain is quantified as containing approximately 98 trillion bytes of data, this available for processing at a speed of 61 million floating point operations per second.[42] During November 2009, scientists (Modha et al) supposedly simulated a cat's brain using a supercomputer [43] containing 24,576 processors. [44][45] The experiment was considered to have been a simulation of the entire number of bytes of information corresponding to the number of synaptic connections that exist within a cat's brain, and not a replication of the functioning (simulation of the type of synaptic patterns that occur in cat functioning), [46][47] i.e. that the computer simulation had not been a realistic simulation of a cat brain. There are a number of reasons the cat brain is a goal of computer simulations. Cats are a familiar and easily-kept animal, so the physiology of cats has been particularly well studied. The physical structure of human brains and cat brains are very similar. Cats, like humans, have binocular vision that gives them depth perception.[48] Building artificial mammal brains requires ever more powerful computers as the brain gets more complex, from the mouse brain, to the rat brain (in 2007), to the cat brain, and ultimately to the human brain. Building artificial mammal brains advances the research of both neuroscience and artificial intelligence, but also leads to questions of the definition of sentient and conscious life forms, and to the ethics of artificial consciousness.[49]

the Javanese cat
Javan tiger photographed by Andries Hoogerwerf in Ujung Kulon National Park, 1938 [50]

The learning cat[edit]

Main : Animal Cognition

The key experiments undertook by Edward Thorndike showed that the cat was able to learn due to states of instrumental conditioning (Thorndike 1905). Cats were observed to slowly solve the experimental condition imposed upon them, called the puzzle box, by "trial and error with accidental success" (experimental conditions : Thorndike 1911),[51][52] in one such test the cat was shown to have done worse in a later trial than the previous (Thorndike 1898), suggesting no storage of information nor learning retained available in long-term memory. The cat was considered by the scientist to have the capacity for learning from the law of effect.[52] A later experiment showed no cognition that allows for the appreciation of occurrances in the direct environment for events described by humans as cause-and-effect relations (Osthaus 2009).[53][54] Thorndike was sceptical of the presence of intelligence in cats, criticising sources of the (his) time writing of the sentience of animals as

partiality in deductions from facts and more especially in the choice of facts for investigation. [55]

Research made to identify possible observational learning from kittens that were able to observe their female paternal relative performing an experimentally organised act were able to perform the same act sooner than kittens within the same conditions that had observed a non-relation adult cat. Also (supposed) kitten's volitions [56] that were placed in trail and error conditions never produced the response indicated by the experimental outline.[57][58][59] Any current investigation into whether the cat has insight is here insufficiently explored (Köhler) [60][61][62] although, with some confidence, the cat is probably devoid or absent of the capacity for insight.[52] This is likely true of the house cat although the big-cat brain, i.e. P. leo and P. tigris, might lend a person to consider the potential possible in the larger brain. [63][64] Of this the larger brain is that of the tiger in Java and Bali, of which the largest relative brain size within the bigger cats is the tigris.(YAMAGUCHI, KITCHENER, GILISSEN, MACDONALD)[65] The big cat is at least containing the capacity for domestication, as is observed in the sacred Buddhist temple of Wat Pha Luang Ta Bua of Thailand, where monks and tigers seem to be living in a relative harmony.[66] Though in contrary, the cats tendency to tameness from a savage state of nature is, in fact, a sign of the innate lack of intelligence of the species, when considering the truism of the need for developing intelligence as a factor of dominance over the direct environment such as the global state that today homo sapiens has inhabited via science. So that in looking to the information below a person is able to observe that the niche this apex predator occupies is likely a terminal ecological position for the species. [67]

map of the territory of the tiger : the years 1900 and 1990

The likelihood of an evolution of pantera intelligence within the millions-of-years time-scale identified by the evolution of human intelligence studies is for most an unknowable quotient. Still the probability might be known as a factor of genetics at least from 2006, when the entire map of the felix catus genetic sequence of an Abyssinian cat was made, although no research appears to be published as yet, describing the genetic predisposition innate in the cat for reason (Sorabji) or intelligent thought.[68][69]


Observations of dreaming cats provides at least some evidence of something people recognize as a cognitive process involved in the activities of intelligence.[70][71][72][73][74]


Cats are known to be trained as circus animals,[75] although traditionally considered difficult mainly because they appear to assume such behaviors only in exchange for a direct benefit.[citation needed] A good example of this is The Yuri Kuklachev Cat Theatre based in Moscow,[76] the owner of which has been training cats for many years to do a full range of circus style tricks. Also there is the belief that cats are difficult to train owing to impatience and boredom with the training exercise.[citation needed] Although a human with a good relationship to a cat, where there is trust and good communication, might find the cat much easier to train. A urinal-toilet-trained cat is a rare animal, and successful toilet training depends both on the willingness of the animal to learn as well as on the patience of the owner to teach.Many cats appear to have active minds thriving on stimulation, exploration and learning. Many of the same basic methods of training other domestic animals—shaping behavior, and giving reinforcement in the form of treats, lavish praise or attention for correct responses, are applicable also to cats. A cat can be taught to "sit" for treats or meals; this or other such repeatable behaviour responses can act as a foundation for further training. Some cats can be trained to play fetch with a varied degree of success (which is dependent on the cat and its mood). Siamese, Korats, Bengals, Tonkinese, and Burmese cats are well regarded as breeds that naturally carry objects in their mouths. They are easy to train to fetch and carry, again it may come naturally. Breeds such as the Egyptian Mau, Maine Coon, Turkish Van, Savannah, Short Hair and Turkish Angora, and Bombay are also well known for an affinity for playing fetch.As long as there is at least a remote chance of locating the thrown item, the cat will run off to find it. Once retrieved, waiting or a simple call is enough for the cat to return with the item (if it does not choose to do it themselves) and deposit it (usually) within arm's reach (or just outside as a possible form of dominance, making the owner change position). Chasing an object in the air is a natural cat hunting behavior, and many cats will chase down a thrown toy for the sheer enjoyment of running and catching.


Any discussion of cat intelligence seem mostly from consideration of the domesticated cat rather than studies of the cognitive ethology of felix silvestris. The process of domestication has allowed for closer observation of cat behaviour and in the increased incidence of interspecies communication (Boone 1956;Fox 1980), the inherent plasticity of the cat's brain has become apparent as the number of studies in this have increased scientific insight. Changes in the genetic structure of a number of cats has been identified (Driscoll et al 2007) as a consequence of both domestication practises and the activity of breeding, so that the species has undergone genetic evolutionary change due to human selection.[77][78] The domesticated cat developed by artificial selection to possess characteristics desirable for the sharing of human habitation and living, coupled with an initial naturally occuring selective set of cat-choices made while interacting with Neolithic urban environments.[79] The intelligence of the cat as largely dependent upon inter-species relations [h.sapiens - f catus] is reflected in responses in the stress hormones released in cats kept from exploratative behaviours, i.e. an enriched and stimulating environment produced by exploring urban places increased the likelihood of cerebral plasticity from the need of situations requiring novel adaptive behaviour,[80] this scavenging behaviour [81][82] would only have produced slow changes in evolutionary terms such as is comparible to the changes to the brain [83] of early primitive hominids co-existant with primitive cats, and adapting to savannah conditions (Bobe, Behrensmeyer 2004[84]), [85][86][87]

Script error: No such module "Clade".

Considering the fossil-based family tree of placental mammals [88] above; the feline line diverged many years previously from the primate line; the cat both feral and domesticated is likely to be maintained in a stasis by it's niche position in the current food web.[89]

Genetic engineering[edit]

The limitations resulting from the genetic propensity that the cat as a species has for adaption to a more intelligent biological state through evolutionary means [90] are relevant only now in considerations of genetic engineering providing a cat with greater intelligence. The continuation of the domestication of the cat beyond the selective breeding that produced the variety of domestic cat seen today is considered to involve risks and threats to the integrity of life. Animal integrity is cited a reason that genetic transformation of animals should not proceed.[91][92][93]

Intelligence by breed[edit]

Ranking the intelligence of cats by breed is popular[citation needed] among pet owners, veterinarians and others, but the practice tends to run into difficulties.[citation needed] In general, the subject of cat intelligence rankings tends to be subjective.[citation needed] Cat breeder Norman Auspitz states the following:[relevant? ]

As a rule, people seem to think the more active breeds have higher intelligence than the less active breeds. I will tell you that in feline agility, all breeds have done very well or very poorly as the case may be.. Having said that, there is no certified measure of cat intelligence and this general rule may be very anthropomorphic... until there is a credible definition of what might be meant by cat intelligence and a way to measure it, any comment anyone will make about the subject is, at best, speculation.[94]

The intelligent cat[edit]

A cat was documented by a research-scientist to have adapted an object for use as a tool to add water to dry cat food--this tool-use being invented by the cat without any prior training by humans.[95]

Inter-species and feline communication[edit]

The ancient egyptians worshipped the cat god, Bastet.[citation needed][Not relevant] Many people[who?] in the modern world have oft found the need for direct spoken communication with a cat.[citation needed] The benefits of the warm and soft furriness[peacock term] that is cat are undeniable[citation needed] and well known[citation needed] to the multitude of owners[who?] and individuals[who?] occasioning upon a friendly stray whilst wandering in the world outside.[original research?] Communication between the cat and a human is in some way seductive upon the reasoning and the temptation to engage with the animal on a human level perhaps leads to bad thinking.[original research?] The regressive behaviour some people engage in is in some way an expression of the truth,[citation needed] the cat brain is like that of a infant or baby;[citation needed] but by doing so the mind tends through repetition, tiredness, intoxication or otherwise to succumb to the wrong conclusion as to the consciousness of the cat (or lack of).[original research?] In a traditional[peacock term] overview of animal-relations to people; humans dwelling within rural environments and the penetrative[peacock term] insights that logic and reason afforded later individuals were neither available nor desired (necessary);[original research?] tribal cultures engaged in ritualistic activities especially like that known as shamanistic.[Not relevant][96] Certainly the use-misuse-abuse in western civilisation of ancient entheogens, places the consciousness of a large number of individuals within this tradition.[original research?] Hence by unknowing social contacts with such persons the adoption of values and mores produces a shared community of compromised thought, so that the unaffected consciousness is required to re-accept the altered reality of a drug using or previously using person(s), (perhaps with some amusement).[original research?] The philosophy of the contemporary practice of martial arts re-integrates to some degree the ancient totemic living of the tribe into a sophisticated and technologically full urban environment,[Not relevant][97][98] but by doing so man and woman retain a modicus of contact with human history and the truth of the human condition, there-by avoiding the dangers of a life lived outside of nature. Adherents to religioun finding the animal world a sign of the working of god locate the existence of the Anima as a quality sometimes transferred to the animal kingdom in it's more civilized visages.[Not relevant][99][100][55][101]

See also[edit]

CONTENT ARCHIVE : The experiences and perception of the cat owner[edit]

Cats, like many animals, communicate in a social environment in various ways.[102]

Some aspects of this behaviour are simple, such as purring to express the desire for and enjoyment of attention, meowing near the food bowl to get fed, some remember what time they get fed and attempt to gain their owner's attention at that time every day, etc., and some are more complex.

Domestic cats organize themselves in complex social units when food is plentiful and conditions are otherwise conducive to it.

It is actually quite important to cats' welfare to understand that they are not 'solitary by nature.'

Although they do not socialize in the same way that dogs do (they do not hunt in packs, for example, and are not responsive to praise and blame in the same way) they still associate themselves strongly with specific other animals (including humans) and are probably even more attached to place and routine than dogs or their human owners.

Cats may tend to communicate more indirectly, that is if they want their owner to open a door or pick up a favorite toy, they will often stare at the object intently with only occasional looks to the owner, until the owner, noting the focus of the cat, will look to where the cat is looking.

Cats will often place themselves in favorite positions where some behavior of the owner is expected.

These positions are not always related to conditioning, but possibly from the cat remembering that the last time it was in this particular position something it wanted to happen happened.

Unlike true conditioning, however, the cat can easily adjust to new positions to get to the same object of its desire.

Whether this is a sign of intelligence or a lack of intelligence is perhaps unfathomable as cats show so much individualized behavior.

Because of their sensitive sense of smell, some cats prefer going outside to urinate and defecate, and rarely go in the same spot twice.[citation needed]

Kittens are typically trained by their mothers to use a litter box and cover up their waste, so litter training rarely requires human intervention; once they understand where the litter box is, they will seek it out from then on.


  1. ^ Aristotle
  2. ^ George Armitage Miller
    • Plans and the structure of behavior
    • (226 pages)
    • Holt, 1960
    • [Retrieved 2011-12-25]
    • from Miller, GA., Galanter, E. & Pribram, KH. (1960) Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York
  3. ^ R. Adolphs, J Gläscher, et al CalTech
  4. ^ Roth, G; Dicke, U (2005). "Evolution of the brain and intelligence". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 9 (5): 250–7. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2005.03.005. PMID 15866152. [originally] Foley, RA; Lee, PC; Widdowson, E. M.; Knight, C. D.; Jonxis, J. H. P. (1991). "Ecology and energetics of encephalization in hominid evolution". Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. 334 (1270): 223–31, discussion 232. doi:10.1098/rstb.1991.0111. PMID 1685580.
  5. ^ W. Outhwaite
  6. ^ I B. Weiner, W. E. Craighead
  7. ^ Richard Sorabji
  8. ^ Allen, Colin
    • "Animal Consciousness",
    • The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),(
    • [Retrieved 2011-12-25]
  9. ^ Bryn Mawr college ( website)
  10. ^ (University of Washington - website)
  11. ^ E.G. Jones, W. Martin Usrey, et al
    • ( UC Regents Davis campus, 2005-2011. All rights reserved.
    • [Retrieved 2011-12-23]
  12. ^ the University of Wisconsin, Michigan State University and the National Museum of Health and Medicine[Retrieved 2011-12-23]
  13. ^ Kurths, Jürgen; Zhou, Changsong; Zamora-López, Gorka (2011). "Exploring Brain Function from Anatomical Connectivity". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 5. doi:10.3389/fnins.2011.00083.
  14. ^ Feig, Sherry; Harting, John K. (1998). "Corticocortical communication via the thalamus: Ultrastructural studies of corticothalamic projections from area 17 to the lateral posterior nucleus of the cat and inferior pulvinar nucleus of the owl monkey". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 395 (3): 281–95. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19980808)395:3<281::AID-CNE2>3.0.CO;2-Z. PMID 9596524.
  15. ^ Huang, C; Lindsley, D (1973). "Polysensory responses and sensory interaction in pulvinar and related postero-lateral thalamic nuclei in cat". Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 34 (3): 265–80. doi:10.1016/0013-4694(73)90254-X. PMID 4129614.
  16. ^ Fourment, A.; Hirsch, J.C. (1980). "Synaptic potentials in cat's lateral geniculate neurons during natural sleep with special reference to paradoxical sleep". Neuroscience Letters. 16 (2): 149–54. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(80)90335-3. PMID 6302571.
  17. ^ Adamec, R; Starkadamec, C (1983). "Partial kindling and emotional bias in the cat: Lasting aftereffects of partial kindling of the ventral hippocampusI. Behavioral changes". Behavioral and Neural Biology. 38 (2): 205–22. doi:10.1016/S0163-1047(83)90212-1. PMID 6314985.
  18. ^ Marcos, P; Coveñas, R; Narvaez, JA; Aguirre, JA; Tramu, G; Gonzalez-Baron, S (1998). "Neuropeptides in the cat amygdala". Brain research bulletin. 45 (3): 261–8. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(97)00343-2. PMID 9580215.
  19. ^ Forrest, D. V. (2002). "The Executive Brain: Frontal Lobes and the Civilized Mind". American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (9): 1615. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.9.1615.
  20. ^ K. Gibson, A. Petersen
  21. ^ ([Retrieved 2011-12-24]
  22. ^ Clarke, S; De Ribaupierre, F; Bajo, VM; Rouiller, EM; Kraftsik, R (1995). "The auditory pathway in cat corpus callosum". Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation cerebrale. 104 (3): 534–40. PMID 7589305.
  23. ^ Payne, B. R.; Siwek, D. F. (1991). "The Visual Map in the Corpus Callosum of the Cat". Cerebral Cortex. 1 (2): 173–88. doi:10.1093/cercor/1.2.173. PMID 1822731.
  24. ^ Ebner, Ford F.; Myers, Ronald E. (1965). "Distribution of corpus callosum and anterior commissure in cat and raccoon". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 124 (3): 353–65. doi:10.1002/cne.901240306. PMID 5861718.
  25. ^ Boya, Jesús; Calvo, Jose Luis; Rancano, Dolores (1995). "Structure of the pineal gland in the adult cat". Journal of Pineal Research. 18 (2): 112–8. doi:10.1111/j.1600-079X.1995.tb00148.x. PMID 7629690.
  26. ^ Peters, D. A. V.; McGeer, P. L.; McGeer, E. G. (1968). "The Distribution of Tryptophan Hydroxylase in Cat Brain". Journal of Neurochemistry. 15 (12): 1431–5. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1968.tb05924.x. PMID 5305846.
  27. ^ ( Bryn Mawr college Serendip 1994-2011 [Retrieved 2011-12-23]
  28. ^ Smith, JM; James, MF; Bockhorst, KH; Smith, MI; Bradley, DP; Papadakis, NG; Carpenter, TA; Parsons, AA; Leslie, RA (2001). "Investigation of feline brain anatomy for the detection of cortical spreading depression with magnetic resonance imaging". Journal of anatomy. 198 (Pt 5): 537–54. doi:10.1017/S002187820100766X. PMC 1468243. PMID 11430693.
  29. ^ ( Cornell University of Veterinary Medicine [Retrieved 2008-11-21]( 2011-12-23)
  30. ^ Grouse, Lawrence D.; Schrier, Bruce K.; Nelson, Phillip G. (1979). "Effect of visual experience on gene expression during the development of stimulus specificity in cat brain". Experimental Neurology. 64 (2): 354–64. doi:10.1016/0014-4886(79)90275-9. PMID 428511. [from] Richard M. Lerner - ( the nature of human plasticity (208 pages) Cambridge University Press, 1984 ISBN 0521256518 [Retrieved 2011-12-22]
  31. ^ V.Okujava, T Natashvili, K.Gogeshvili, T.Gurashvili, S. Chipashvili, T.Bagashvili, G.Andronikashvili, N.Okujava ( [ also: V.Okujava,T Natashvili, M.Mishkin,T.Gurashvili, S. Chipashvili, T.Bagashvili, G.Andronikashvili, G.Kwernadze, (2005) Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2005;65(2):205-11. ]
  32. ^ Fiset, S; Doré, FY (1996). "Spatial encoding in domestic cats (Felis catus)". Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes. 22 (4): 420–37. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.22.4.420. PMID 8865610.
  33. ^ Doré, FY (1990). "Search behaviour of cats (Felis catus) in an invisible displacement test: Cognition and experience". Canadian journal of psychology. 44 (3): 359–70. doi:10.1037/h0084262. PMID 2224640.
  34. ^ Dumas, C (1992). "Object permanence in cats (Felis catus): An ecological approach to the study of invisible displacements". Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983). 106 (4): 404–10. PMID 1451424.
  35. ^ Dumas, C; Doré, FY (1991). "Cognitive development in kittens (Felis catus): An observational study of object permanence and sensorimotor intelligence". Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983). 105 (4): 357–65. PMID 1778068.
  36. ^ Heishman, Miriam; Conant, Mindy; Pasnak, Robert (1995). "Human Analog Tests of the Sixth Stage of Object Permanence". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 80 (3c): 1059. doi:10.2466/pms.1995.80.3c.1059.
  37. ^ Maier and Schneirla
  38. ^ ion[Retrieved 2011-12-29]
  39. ^ V. Edgson, I. Marber
  40. ^ C.Datz
  41. ^ (Jean Eisenstaedt) - Albert Einstein -
    • The curious history of relativity: how Einstein's theory of gravity was lost and found again
    • Volume 15 of CNRS histoire des sciences
    • Princeton University Press, 2006
    • ISBN 0691118655
  42. ^ Mark Fischetti ( October 25, 2011) ( Nature America, Inc [Retrieved 2011-12-23]
  43. ^ Dharmendra Modha et al "IBM computer simulates cat's cerebral cortex". Associated Press. November 18, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
  44. ^ Mark Fischetti ( October 25, 2011) Nature America, Inc [Retrieved 2011-12-23]
  45. ^ Adee, Sally (November 18, 2009). "IBM Unveils a New Brain Simulator". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved December 31, 2009. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  46. ^ Adee, Sally (January 2010). "Two simulations and an angry e-mail reveal the conflicting goals of supercomputer brain modeling". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved December 31, 2009. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  47. ^ Burt, Jeffrey (November 24, 2009). "Rival Scientist Calls IBM Cat Brain Simulation a Scam". IT Infrastructure - eWeek. Retrieved December 31, 2009. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  48. ^ Grossberg, Stephen; Grunewald, Alexander (2002). "Temporal dynamics of binocular disparity processing with corticogeniculate interactions". Neural Networks. 15 (2): 181–200. doi:10.1016/S0893-6080(01)00149-6. PMID 12022507.
  49. ^ Koch, Christof and Tononi, Giulio (June 2008). "Can Machines Be Conscious?". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved December 31, 2009. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  50. ^ Seidensticker, J. (1987)
    • Bearing Witness: Observations on the Extinction of Panthera tigris balica and Panthera tigris sondaica. In: Tilson, R. L., Seal, U.S. (Hrsg.) Tigers of the World. Noyes Publications, New Jersey ( and User:BhagyaMani ( 21:36, 19 March 2010)
  51. ^ [ originally referenced Thorndike's Puzzle Box experiments noted at Sarah Hartwell 2004-2009 (research website) ] ( including Retrieved 2011-12-22 [ Guthrie, E. R.;Horton, G. P. ( Cats in a puzzle box Oxford, England: Rinehart. (1946). 67 pp. ] & [ Edward Thorndike, Darryl Bruce Animal intelligence: experimental studies (297 pages) Transaction Publishers, 2000 ( ISBN 0765804824 ] )
  52. ^ a b c D.Bernstein, L. A. Penner, A. Clarke-Stewart, E. J. Roy ( Psychology (760 pages) Cengage Learning, 2007. Cengage Learning, 2007. 2007-10. ISBN 9780618874071. Retrieved 2011-12-24. {{cite book}}: Check |url= value (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  53. ^ Britta Osthaus (Canterbury Christ Church University) James Meikle (The Guardian newspaper)
  54. ^ Pallaud, B. (1984). "Hypotheses on mechanisms underlying observational learning in animals". Behavioural Processes. 9 (4): 381. doi:10.1016/0376-6357(84)90024-X.
  55. ^ a b STEPHEN BUDIANSKY [( If a Lion Could Talk : Animal Intelligence and the Evolution of Consciousness]. ISBN 9780684837109. Retrieved 2011-12-24. {{cite book}}: Check |url= value (help)
  56. ^ referencing corp.( The American Heritage Medical Dictionary. Publication Year: 2007. Publisher: Houghton Mifflin ISBN: 9780618824359 - Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier are the sources of the definition of volition [Retrieved 2011-12-24]
  57. ^ Chesler, P. (1969). "Maternal Influence in Learning by Observation in Kittens". Science. 166 (3907): 901–3. doi:10.1126/science.166.3907.901. PMID 5345208.
  58. ^ Linda P. Case
    • The cat: its behavior, nutrition, & health (392 pages)
    • Wiley-Blackwell (2003)
    • ISBN 0813803314
    • [Retrieved 2011-12-24]
  59. ^ D. C. Turner
  60. ^ M. Wertheimer
  61. ^ C. George Boeree Shippensburg University (&)[Retrieved 2011-12-25]
  62. ^ from
  63. ^ McNab, B. K.; Eisenberg, J. F. (1989). "Brain Size and Its Relation to the Rate of Metabolism in Mammals". The American Naturalist. 133 (2): 157–167. doi:10.1086/284907. JSTOR 2462294.
  64. ^ author : Richard Alleyne - article written on the study & research of > [ Dr Nobby Yamaguchi - Oxford University Wildlife Conservation Research Unit ] - © Copyright of Telegraph Media Group Limited 2012
  65. ^ Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Gilissen, Emmanuel; MacDonald, David W. (2009). "Brain size of the lion (Panthera leo) and the tiger (P. Tigris): Implications for intrageneric phylogeny, intraspecific differences and the effects of captivity". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 98: 85. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009.01249.x.
  66. ^ //
  67. ^ [Retrieved 2011-12-26]
  68. ^ Pontius, J. U.; Mullikin, J. C.; Smith, D. R.; Lindblad-Toh, K.; Gnerre, S.; Clamp, M.; Chang, J.; Stephens, R.; Neelam, B. (2007). "Initial sequence and comparative analysis of the cat genome". Genome Research. 17 (11): 1675–89. doi:10.1101/gr.6380007. PMC 2045150. PMID 17975172.
  69. ^ Gosso, M. F.; Van Belzen, M.; De Geus, E. J. C.; Polderman, J. C.; Heutink, P.; Boomsma, D. I.; Posthuma, D. (2006). "Association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence in a sample of 304 Dutch families". Genes, Brain and Behavior. 5 (8): 577. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2006.00211.x.
  70. ^ Dr. N. Dodman, A. Fiegl
  71. ^ miketorapapa on 1 Nov 2008[Retrieved 2011-12-26]
  72. ^ Jouvet, M. (2008). "Ciba Foundation Symposium - the Nature of Sleep". Novartis Foundation Symposia: 188. doi:10.1002/9780470719220.ch9. ISBN 9780470719220. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); |chapter= ignored (help)
  73. ^ Siegel, Jerome M (2006). "The stuff dreams are made of: Anatomical substrates of REM sleep". Nature Neuroscience. 9 (6): 721–2. doi:10.1038/nn0606-721. PMID 16732200.
  74. ^ Hazra, J. (1970). "Effect of hemicholinium-3 on slow wave and paradoxical sleep of cat". European Journal of Pharmacology. 11 (3): 395–7. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(70)90018-X. PMID 5477316.
  75. ^ G. Popovich
    • [Retrieved 2011-12-27]
  76. ^ (
  77. ^ Driscoll, C. A.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Roca, A. L.; Hupe, K.; Johnson, W. E.; Geffen, E.; Harley, E. H.; Delibes, M.; Pontier, D. (2007). "The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication". Science. 317 (5837): 519–23. doi:10.1126/science.1139518. PMID 17600185.
  78. ^ The Feline Advisory Bureau ([Retrieved 2011-12-23]
  79. ^ Driscoll, C. A.; MacDonald, D. W.; O'Brien, S. J. (2009). "Colloquium Papers: From wild animals to domestic pets, an evolutionary view of domestication". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106: 9971. doi:10.1073/pnas.0901586106.
  80. ^ Carlstead, Kathy; Brown, Janine L.; Seidensticker, John (1993). "Behavioral and adrenocortical responses to environmental changes in leopard cats (Felis bengalensis)". Zoo Biology. 12 (4): 321. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430120403.
  81. ^ BBCWorldwide -
  82. ^ cutoffresonance ( domestic cat video [Retrieved 2011-12-24]
  83. ^ ( [Retrieved 2011-12-26]
  84. ^ Bobe, R (2004). "The expansion of grassland ecosystems in Africa in relation to mammalian evolution and the origin of the genus Homo". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 207 (3–4): 399. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2003.09.033.
  85. ^ J. William Schopf, University of California, Los Angeles. IGPP Center for the Study of Evolution and the Origin of Life Major events in the history of life (190 pages) Jones & Bartlett Learning, 1992 ( ISBN 0867202688 [Retrieved 2011-12-24]
  86. ^ R. Croitor
  87. ^ Hart, Donna; Sussman, Robert W. (2011). "Origins of Altruism and Cooperation": 19. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9520-9_3. ISBN 978-1-4419-9519-3. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); |chapter= ignored (help)
  88. ^ [Retrieved 2011-12-26]
  89. ^ Jordán, Ferenc; Liu, Wei-Chung; Davis, Andrew J. (2006). "Topological keystone species: Measures of positional importance in food webs". Oikos. 112 (3): 535. doi:10.1111/j.0030-1299.2006.13724.x.
  90. ^ S. Sumathi, T. Hamsapriya, P. Surekha 5 Mar 2008
    • Evolutionary intelligence: an introduction to theory and applications with Matlab (584 pages)
    • (,)
    • ISBN 3540751580
    • [Retrieved 2011-12-24]
  91. ^ Michael Jonathan Reiss, Roger Straughan
    • Improving nature?: the science and ethics of genetic engineering 288 pages
    • (
    • Canto Series Canto: Cambridge University Press , 21 May 2001
  92. ^ Bernard E. Rollin
  93. ^ Verhoog, H (2007). "The tension between common sense and scientific perception of animals: Recent developments in research on animal integrity". NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences. 54 (4): 361. doi:10.1016/S1573-5214(07)80009-1.
  94. ^ Norman Auspitz: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 17. Dezember 2005;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär[self-published source?]
  95. ^ article written by J.J. Lancaster ( ( New York Times Company
  96. ^ Piers Vitebsky
  97. ^ P. Jones, N. Pennick
  98. ^ Thomas A. Green ed.
  99. ^ Carl Jung : The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1934)
  100. ^[dead link]][Retrieved 2011-12-25]
  101. ^ {} Wittgenstein Light: Real Refreshment A Contribution to the Human Face with Reference to Wittgenstein[Retrieved 2011-12-25][self-published source?]
  102. ^

Further reading[edit]

  • Bergler, Reinhold "Man and Cat: The Benefits of Cat Ownership" Blackwell Scientific Publications (1989)
  • Bradshaw, John W S "The Behaviour of the Domestic Cat" C A B International (1992)
  • Chesler, P. (1969). "Maternal Influence in Learning by Observation in Kittens". Science. 166 (3907): 901–3. doi:10.1126/science.166.3907.901. PMID 5345208.
  • Hobhouse, L T "Mind in Evolution" MacMillan, London (1915)
  • Turner, Dennis C, and Patrick Bateson. "The Domestic Cat: The Biology of Its Behaviour" Cambridge University Press (1988)
  • Miles, R. C. (1958). "Learning in kittens with manipulatory, exploratory, and food incentives". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 51 (1): 39–42. doi:10.1037/h0049255. PMID 13513843.
  • Neville, Peter "Claws and Purrs" Sidgwick & Jackson (1992)
  • Neville, Peter "Do Cats Need Shrinks" Sidgwick & Jackson (1990)
  • Voith, VL (1981). "You, too, can teach a cat tricks (examples of shaping, second-order reinforcement, and constraints on learning)". Modern veterinary practice. 62 (8): 639–42. PMID 7290076.

External links[edit]

  • D.M.Fankhauser Removal and study of the cat brain and Cranial nerves of the cat [Retrieved 2011-12-22] (images and instruction) for an anatomy and physiology class for the dissecting of the brain of a cat

hu:A macska intelligenciája pt:Inteligência em gatos