Wikipedia Zero

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Wikipedia Zero
Wikipedia Zero Logo.svg
The Wikipedia Zero logo
Affiliations Wikimedia Foundation
Wikipedia
Browsing Wikipedia via Ncell in Nepal.

Wikipedia Zero is a project by the Wikimedia Foundation to provide Wikipedia free of charge on mobile phones, particularly in developing markets.[1][2] The program was launched in 2012,[3] and won a 2013 SXSW Interactive Award for activism.[4] The objective of the program is to increase access to free knowledge: in particular without data-usage cost.

Facebook Zero has been cited as an inspiration for Wikipedia Zero.[5]

History[edit]

Map of participating countries, as of March 2015

Below is a selective history of launches. For a complete list of participating mobile networks and launch dates, see Wikimedia Foundation: mobile network partners.

Participating mobile networks[edit]

See Wikimedia Foundation: mobile network partners.

Reception and impact[edit]

Promotional video, produced by the Wikimedia Foundation and narrated by Jimmy Wales.
Promotional video about free access to Wikipedia, featuring a school-class from South Africa and their open letter to tele-cos.

The Subsecretaria de Telecomunicaciones of Chile ruled that zero-rating services like Wikipedia Zero, Facebook Zero, and Google Free Zone, that subsidize mobile data usage, violate net neutrality laws and had to end the practice by June 1, 2014.[18][19] The Electronic Frontier Foundation has said, "Whilst we appreciate the intent behind efforts such as Wikipedia Zero, ultimately zero rated services are a dangerous compromise."[20] Accessnow.org has been more critical, saying, "Wikimedia has always been a champion for open access to information, but it’s crucial to call out zero-rating programs for what they are: Myopic deals that do great damage to the future of the open internet."[21] The Wikimedia Foundation's Gayle Karen Young defended the program to the Washington Post, saying, "We have a complicated relationship to net neutrality. We believe in net neutrality in America," while adding that Wikipedia Zero required a different perspective in other countries: "Partnering with telecom companies in the near term, it blurs the net neutrality line in those areas. It fulfills our overall mission, though, which is providing free knowledge."[22]

In 2015, Newsweek reported that the Indian Institute of Planning and Management, an unaccredited Indian university, misled rural families into believing it was accredited, while a Wikipedia Administrator whitewashed critical information from the school's Wikipedia page.[23] Mahesh Peri, publisher of a magazine that ran critical investigations into the school, criticised Wikipedia Zero for exposing poor farmers to biased information on the school's page.

Hilary Heuler argues that "for many, zero-rated programs would limit online access to the 'walled gardens' offered by the web heavyweights. For millions of users, Facebook and Wikipedia would be synonymous with 'internet'."[24] In 2015, researchers evaluating how the similar program Facebook Zero shapes ICT use in the developing world found that 11% of Indonesians who said they used Facebook also said they did not use the Internet. 65% of Nigerians, 61% of Indonesians, and 58% of Indians agree with the statement that "Facebook is the Internet" compared with only 5% in the US.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Russell, Brandon (Template:ISO date/en). “Wikipedia Zero Wants to Bring Wikipedia to Mobile Users Without a Data Plan”. TechnoBuffalo. https://www.technobuffalo.com/2013/02/22/wikipedia-zero-sms/ Template:ISO date/en閲覧。 
  2. ^ Wadhwa, Kul Takanao (Template:ISO date/en). “[ Getting Wikipedia to the people who need it most]”. Knight Foundation. Template:ISO date/en閲覧。
  3. ^ Sofge, Erik (March 8, 2013). “SXSW: Wikipedia for Non-Smartphones Is Brilliant. Here's Why” (Template:ISO639言語名). Popular Mechanics. http://www.popularmechanics.com/how-to/blog/sxsw-wikipedia-for-non-smartphones-is-brilliant-here-s-why-15189767 Template:ISO date/en閲覧。. 
  4. ^ Riese, Monica (Template:ISO date/en). “SXSW Interactive Awards Announced”. The Austin Chronicle (Austin, Texas: Austin Chronicle Corp.). ISSN 1074-0740. http://www.austinchronicle.com/blogs/sxsw/2013-03-12/sxsw-interactive-awards-announced/ Template:ISO date/en閲覧。 
  5. ^ Dillon, Conon (Template:ISO date/en). “[ Wikipedia Zero: free data if you can afford it]”. Template:ISO date/en閲覧。
  6. ^ “[ Wikipedia Zero launches in Malaysia with Digi — Wikimedia blog]”. Blog.wikimedia.org (2012年5月26日). 2013年6月27日閲覧。
  7. ^ “Mobilink brings Wikipedia Zero to Pakistan”. nation.com.pk. http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/business/05-Jun-2013/mobilink-brings-wikipedia-zero-to-pakistan 2013年6月27日閲覧。 
  8. ^ “[ Wikipedia FREE]”. Dialog. 2015年7月30日閲覧。
  9. ^ “[ Tech Talk | Wikipedia Zero | A righteous initiative for accessing free knowledge]”. Archive.thedailystar.net (2013年12月2日). 2014年6月24日閲覧。
  10. ^ “[ Banglalink launches Wikipedia Zero :: Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh]”. Thefinancialexpress-bd.com. 2014年6月24日閲覧。
  11. ^ “[ Kosovo's Largest Foreign Investment Sets Tone for Innovation]”. Hazlehurst Media SA. Template:ISO date/en閲覧。
  12. ^ “[ Wikipedia Zero arrives in Nepal via Ncell and you don’t have to pay a Paisa to use it]”. 2014年5月19日閲覧。
  13. ^ “[ Beeline открыл бесплатный доступ к Wikipedia для своих абонентов]”.Template:Cite web/error
  14. ^ “[ Абоненти "Київстар" можуть користуватися Wikipedia з нульовим балансом на рахунку]”. Kyivstar. 2014年11月13日閲覧。
  15. ^ “MTN Ghana empowers customers with free access to Wikipedia”. myjoyonline.com. http://www.myjoyonline.com/business/2014/December-22nd/mtn-ghana-empowers-customers-with-free-access-to-wikipedia.php Template:ISO date/en閲覧。 
  16. ^ “MTN Ghana empowers customers with free access to Wikipedia”. Ghana News Agency. myjoyonline.com. (Template:ISO date/en). http://www.myjoyonline.com/business/2014/December-22nd/mtn-ghana-empowers-customers-with-free-access-to-wikipedia.php Template:ISO date/en閲覧。 
  17. ^ “[ TelenorMyanmar - Free Wikipedia]”. telenor.com.mm.Template:Cite web/error
  18. ^ Mirani, Leo (Template:ISO date/en). “[ Less than zero – When net neutrality backfires: Chile just killed free access to Wikipedia and Facebook]”. Quartz. Template:ISO date/en閲覧。
  19. ^ McKenzie, Jessica (Template:ISO date/en). “[ Face Off in Chile: Net Neutrality v. Human Right to Facebook & Wikipedia]”. Template:ISO date/en閲覧。
  20. ^ “[ Net Neutrality and the Global Digital Divide]”. Electronic Frontier Foundation.Template:Cite web/error
  21. ^ “[ Wikipedia Zero and net neutrality: Wikimedia turns its back on the open internet]”. accessnow.org (2014年8月8日).Template:Cite web/error
  22. ^ “[ Wikipedia’s ‘complicated’ relationship with net neutrality]”. Washington Post.Template:Cite web/error
  23. ^ Alistair Sloan (Template:ISO date/en). “[ Manipulating Wikipedia to Promote a Bogus Business School]”. Newsweek.Template:Cite web/error
  24. ^ Hilary Heuler. “[ Who really wins from Facebook's 'free internet' plan for Africa?]”. ZDNet.Template:Cite web/error
  25. ^ Leo Mirani (Template:ISO date/en). “[ Millions of Facebook users have no idea they’re using the internet]”.Template:Cite web/error

External links[edit]

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