Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade

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Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade
Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade 2014 Logo.png
Official 2014 88th Annual Parade poster
Presented byPresent:
Matt Lauer (1998–present)
Savannah Guthrie (2012–present)
Al Roker (1995–present)
Dave Garroway (1952–1961)
Betty White (1962–1972)
Lorne Greene (1962–1972)
Ed McMahon (1971–1982)
Bryant Gumbel (1982–1984)
Pat Sajak (1983–1986)
Willard Scott (1987–1997)
Deborah Norville (1989-1990)
Katie Couric (1991–2005)
Meredith Vieira (2006–2010)
Ann Curry (2011)
StarringParade Executive Producer:
Jean McFaddin (1977–2000)
Robin Hall (2001–2010)
Amy Kule (2010–present)
Brad Lachman Productions[1]
Country of originUnited States
No. of episodes89 (as of November 26, 2015)
Location(s)Central Park to Macy's Herald Square,
New York City, New York
Camera setupVideotape; multi-camera
Running time3 hours
(with commercials)
Original channelNBC
Picture format480i (SDTV),
1080i (HDTV)
Original runNovember 24, 1927 (1927-11-24) – November 22, 1951 (1951-11-22) (radio)
November 25, 1948 (1948-11-25)–present (television)
Related showsMacy's Fourth of July Fireworks
Macy's Ballonfest
My Macy's Holiday Parade
Lighting of the Macy's Great Tree
Christmas in Rockefeller Center[1]
External links
Santa Claus' arrival at the parade's finale marks the start of the Christmas season.
A balloon being inflated by the Steven's Inflation Crew during training at Giants Stadium.

The Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is an annual parade presented by the U.S.-based department store chain Macy's. The tradition started in 1924,[2] tying it for the second-oldest Thanksgiving parade in the United States with America's Thanksgiving Parade in Detroit (with both parades being four years younger than the 6abc Dunkin' Donuts Thanksgiving Day Parade in Philadelphia). The three-hour Macy's event is held in New York City starting at 9:00 a.m. Eastern Standard Time on Thanksgiving Day, and has been televised nationally on NBC since 1952.


The former Macy's Parade logo (used until 2005, with a special edition variant being used in the 2006 Parade).
The Macy's Parade logo used in 2006. Balloons, from left: Uncle Sam, Tom Turkey, Macy's Star, Gnome, Toy Soldier, Chloe the Clown.

In the 1920s, many of Macy's department store employees were first-generation European immigrants. Proud of their new American heritage, they wanted to celebrate the American holiday of Thanksgiving with the type of festival their parents had loved in Europe.[3]

In 1924, the annual Thanksgiving parade started by Louis Bamberger in Newark, New Jersey at the Bamberger's store was transferred to New York City by Macy's. In New York, the employees marched to Macy's flagship store on 34th Street dressed in vibrant costumes. There were floats, professional bands and live animals borrowed from the Central Park Zoo. At the end of that first parade, as has been the case with every parade since, Santa Claus was welcomed into Herald Square. At this first parade, however, the Jolly Old Elf was enthroned on the Macy's balcony at the 34th Street store entrance, where he was then "crowned" "King of the Kiddies." With an audience of over 250,000 people, the parade was such a success that Macy's declared it would become an annual event.

Anthony "Tony" Frederick Sarg loved to work with marionettes from an early age. After moving to London to start his own marionette business, Sarg moved to New York City to perform with his puppets on the street. Macy's heard about Sarg's talents and asked him to design a window display of a parade for the store.[4] Sarg's large animal-shaped balloons, produced by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in Akron, Ohio, replaced the live animals in 1927 when the Felix the Cat balloon made its debut. Felix was filled with air, but by the next year, helium was used to fill the expanding cast of balloons.

At the finale of the 1928 parade, the balloons were released into the sky, where they unexpectedly burst. The following year, they were redesigned with safety valves to allow them to float for a few days.[5] Address labels were sewn into them, so that whoever found and mailed back the discarded balloon received a gift from Macy's.[5]

Through the 1930s, the Parade continued to grow, with crowds of over one million people lining the parade route in 1933. The first Mickey Mouse balloon entered the parade in 1934. The annual festivities were broadcast on local radio stations in New York City from 1932 to 1941,[6] and resumed in 1945, running through 1951.[7]

The parade was suspended from 1942 to 1944 as a result of World War II, owing to the need for rubber and helium in the war effort.[8][9] The parade resumed in 1945 using the route that it followed until 2008. The parade became known nationwide after being prominently featured in the 1947 film, Miracle on 34th Street, which included footage of the 1946 festivities. The event was first broadcast on network television in 1948 (see below). By this point the event, and Macy's sponsorship of it, were sufficiently well-known to give rise to the colloquialism "Macy's Day Parade". Since 1984, the balloons have been made by Raven Aerostar (a division of Sioux Falls, South Dakota-based Raven Industries).[10]

Macy's also sponsored the smaller Celebrate the Season Parade in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which is held two days after the main event, from 2006 to 2013. Other American cities also have parades held on Thanksgiving, none of which are run by Macy's. The nation's oldest Thanksgiving parade (the Gimbels parade, which has had many sponsors over the years, and is now known as the 6abc Dunkin' Donuts Thanksgiving Day Parade) was first held in Philadelphia in 1920. Other cities with parades on the holiday include the McDonald's Thanksgiving Parade in Chicago, Illinois and parades in Plymouth, Massachusetts; Seattle, Washington; Houston, Texas; Detroit, Michigan; and Fountain Hills, Arizona. A parade is also held at the two Disney theme parks, Disneyland Resort and Walt Disney World Resort. There is also a second Thanksgiving balloon parade within the New York metropolitan area, the UBS balloon parade in Stamford, Connecticut, located 30 miles (48 km) away; that parade is held the Sunday before Thanksgiving, so as to not compete with the parade in New York City and usually does not duplicate any balloon characters.

The classic "Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade" logo (seen below) was, with one exception, last used in 2005. For 2006, a special variant of the logo was used. Every year since then, a new logo has been used for each parade. The logos however are seen rarely, if at all, on television as NBC has used its own logo with the word "Macy's" in a script typeface and "Thanksgiving Day Parade" in a bold font. The logos are assumed to be for use by Macy's only, such as on the Grandstand tickets and the ID badges worn by parade staff. The Jackets worn by parade staff still bear the original classic parade logo, this being the only place where that logo can be found.

New safety measures were incorporated in 2006 to prevent accidents and balloon-related injuries. One measure taken was the installation of wind measurement devices to alert parade organizers to any unsafe conditions that could cause the balloons to behave erratically. In addition, parade officials implemented a measure to keep the balloons closer to the ground during windy conditions. If wind speeds are forecast to be higher than 34 miles per hour (55 km/h), all balloons are removed from the parade.

In 2007, the journal Puppetry International published a first person account of being a balloon handler.[11]

Balloon introductions[edit]

Since 2013, the balloons in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade have come in two varieties. The first (and older of the two) is the novelty balloon class, consisting of smaller balloons; the novelty balloons range widely in size and are handled by between one and thirty people (the smallest novelty balloons are shaped like human heads and fit on the actual heads of the handlers). The second and more widely known is the full-size balloon class, primarily consisting of licensed pop-culture characters; each of these is handled by exactly 90 people. From 2005 to 2012, a third balloon class, the "Blue Sky Gallery," transformed the works of contemporary artists into full-size balloons.

The following is a list of balloons that have, over the years, been featured in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, sorted by their first year in the lineup. Underlined items indicate entries in the Blue Sky Gallery.

Year Balloons
1927 Felix the Cat
1931 Mama, Papa and Baby (novelty)
1934 Mickey Mouse
1935 The Marx Brothers (novelty, after Zeppo Marx's departure), Donald Duck
1937 Dragon
1938 Uncle Sam
1939 Superman
1940 Eddie Cantor, the only full-size balloon to be based on a living person;[12] The Tin Man, Pinocchio, Happy Hippo
1945 Harold the Clown (1st version)
1946 Harold the Baseball Player (2nd version)
1947 Artie the Pirate, Harold the Police officer (3rd version); Elf Gnome
1948 Harold the Fireman (4th version)
1949 Toy soldier
1950 Frieda the Dachshund
1951 Lucky Pup, Mighty Mouse, Flying fish
1954 Spaceman
1957 Popeye
1960 Happy Dragon
1961 Bullwinkle J. Moose
1962 Donald Duck (2nd version)
1963 Dino, Elsie the Cow
1964 Linus the Lionhearted
1965 Underdog
1966 Smokey Bear, Superman (2nd version)
1968 Aviator Snoopy
1969 Astronaut Snoopy (2nd version, a tribute to Apollo 11)
1972 Smile (Happy Face), Mickey Mouse (2nd version)
1975 Weeble
1976 Hello Kitty
1977 Kermit the Frog
1980 Superman (3rd version, largest balloon to appear in parade)
1982 Olive Oyl, Woody Woodpecker
1983 Yogi Bear
1984 Garfield, Raggedy Ann
1985 Betty Boop and the Moon, Ornament Novelty Balloons
1986 Baby Shamu, Humpty Dumpty, Olive Oyl with Swee'Pea (Alteration to existing Olive Oyl Balloon)
1987 Spider-Man,[13] Ronald McDonald, Snuggle Bear, Skating Snoopy (3rd version), Ice Cream Cone Novelty Balloon
1988 Big Bird, Pink Panther, Winter Snoopy (4th version) with Woodstock, Bandleader Quik Bunny
1989 Bugs Bunny
1990 Clifford the Big Red Dog, Bart Simpson
1991 Babar the Elephant
1992 Santa Goofy
1993 Beethoven (dog), Rex, Sonic the Hedgehog (first video game character in parade history), Izzy
1994 Barney the Dinosaur, The Cat in the Hat, Cloe the Holiday Clown
1995 Dudley the Dragon, SkyDancer, Eben Bear
1996 Rocky and Bullwinkle (2nd version), Peter Rabbit, Harold the Fireman (Remake of earlier balloon)
1997 Arthur, Tommy Pickles, Chuckie Finster and Spike, Bumpe the Party Bull, Ms. Petula Pig
1998 Babe the Pig, Wild Thing, Dexter
1999 Millennium Snoopy (5th version), Honey Nut Cheerios Bee, Blue
2000 Bandleader Mickey Mouse (3rd version), Ronald McDonald (2nd version), Jeeves, Cassie, Beret Tommy Pickles (minor alteration to existing Rugrats Balloon), C.J. the Blue Elf Gnome (Recreation of earlier balloon)
2001 Curious George, Big Bird (2nd version), Jimmy Neutron, Pikachu, Cheesasaurus Rex, Toy Soldier (Remake of earlier Balloon), 75th Parade Snoopy (Alteration to existing Millennium Snoopy Balloon), 60th Anniversary Tuxedo Honey Nut Cheerios Bee (Alteration to existing Honey Nut Cheerios Bee Balloon)
2002 Kermit the Frog (2nd version), Little Bill (First African-American character to appear in the parade), Rich Uncle Pennybags, Charlie Brown, Uncle Sam (2nd version)
2003 Strike up the Band Barney (2nd version), Super Grover, Garfield (2nd version), Gorgeous Gobbler (Turkey)
2004 SpongeBob SquarePants, M&M's, Chicken Little, Jeeves with a new suit (alteration of existing Jeeves Balloon), Kit and Charlie elf gnomes
2005 Dora the Explorer (First Latino character to appear in parade), Scooby-Doo, Healthy Mr. Potato Head, JoJo (First Animated balloon to appear in parade, In JoJo's case, the juggling balls), Cloe the Holiday Clown (2nd Version) Tom Otterness's "Humpty Dumpty"
2006 Pikachu with Poké Ball (2nd version, first balloon with light up features, In Pikachu's case, to light up his cheeks), Flying Ace Snoopy (6th version), 80th Anniversary Hot Air Balloon
2007 Shrek, Supercute Hello Kitty, Abby Cadabby, Novelty pumpkins, Jeff Koons's "Rabbit", Artie the Pirate (Remake of earlier Balloon)
2008 Horton the Elephant, Buzz Lightyear, Smurf, Keith Haring's "Figure with Heart"
2009 Pillsbury Doughboy, Sailor Mickey Mouse (4th version), Ice Skating Ronald McDonald (3rd version), Spider-Man (2nd version)[13]
2010 Greg Heffley, Po from Kung Fu Panda, Virginia O'Hanlon, Takashi Murakami's "Kaikai and Kiki"
2011 Sonic the Hedgehog (second version), Paul Frank's "Julius The Sock Monkey", Tim Burton's "B", Harold the Police Officer (remake of earlier balloon)
2012 Aeroplane Hello Kitty (second version), Papa Smurf, The Elf on the Shelf, Kaws's "Companion", Happy Dragon (second version), Novelty pumpkins (second version)
2013 Snoopy with Woodstock (seventh version), The Wizard of Oz 75th Anniversary Hot Air Balloon, Finn and Jake, Santa Hat SpongeBob SquarePants (second version), Toothless the Dragon, Happy Hippo (second version)
2014 Holiday Pikachu (third version); Thomas the Tank Engine; Paddington Bear; Skylanders Eruptor; Red Mighty Morphin Power Ranger, Pillsbury Doughboy (2nd Version, Identical to first version).
2015 Scrat and his Acorn, Ronald McDonald (fourth version); Angry Birds Red;[14] Dino (second version)

Falloon and Balloonicle[edit]

A falloon, (F), a portmanteau of "float" and "balloon", is a float-based balloon.

A balloonicle, (B), a portmanteau of "balloon" and "vehicle", is a self-powered balloon vehicle.

Year Falloon/balloonicle
1990 Paddington Bear (F)
1991 Humpty Dumpty (F)
1996 Family Channel (Later Fox Family) Snow Family (F)
1997 Grinch (F), Jello (F), Rudolph (F)
1998 Heimlich from Bug's Life (F)
1999 "Buddy" from (F)
2000 Green Dog (F)
2001 Snow Globe (F)
2003 Percy & the P-Birds (F)
2004 Weebles (B) - (3) Tibby, Tooey, Bumpus; Drummer Boy - Holiday Beat (F)
2005 SnowBo (B); Hi Hi Puffy AmiYumi (F)
2006 Energizer Bunny (B)
2008 The Smurfs Mushroom House (F), Bolt (F)
2010 Kool-Aid Man (B)
2011 Sledding Aflac Duck (B), Polar Bear (F), Holiday Ornament (B)
2013 Dreidel (B), Gelt (B)
2014 Ice Skating Aflac Duck (2nd Version) (B), Cloe the Holiday Clown (3rd Version) (B)

Float introductions[edit]

Year Floats
1971 Tom Turkey (later sponsored by The E. W. Scripps Company)
1974 Sesame Street
1979 Sesame Street
1981 New York Daily News Big Apple
1984 Fraggle Rock, Care Bears.
1985 Masters of the Universe, Rainbow Brite.
1987 Marvel Comics
1991 Rock-A-Doodle
1994 Sesame Street reading and writing
1995 Macy's Santaland Express
1996 101 Dalmatians, Barney's Westward Ho! Wagon, Animal Planet, Universal Orlando Resort Grinch and Dr. Seuss
1998 Barney's Gingerbread House, Sesame Street Pop-up Book
1999 Barney's Night Before Christmas (2nd float)
2000 102 Dalmatians, Santa's Sleigh with the Goose (2nd Edition), Delta Airlines, Ronald's Shoe
2001 Around The World, Pokemobile, 75th Parade All Stars
2002 Barney's Playtime in The Park (3rd float), The Hershey Company's Kids Candy Creation Lab, Macy's Marion-Carole "Showboat", Lego's Carousel Of Imagination, Angelina Ballerina, Build-a-Bear Workshop Teddy Bear's Workshop, Bob the Builder, Sesame Street International.
2003 Hess Corporation Bridge to the Future, Eckō Unltd.'s Expedition To Rhino Mountain, Big Comfy Couch, Amica Mutual Insurance American Classic Malt Shop, United States Postal Service's Spirit Of America/American Eagle, Jolly Polly Pirate Ship.
2004 123 Sesame Street, Tutenstein, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang car, Royal Caribbean International Voyage to Adventure, Universal Orlando Resort Holiday Beat, Georgia-Pacific Krazy Kritters, Fisher-Price The Magic of Childhood, Barbie as the Princess and the Pauper, NFL Classic, Spirit of America Pep Rally.
2005 The Polar Express, Walt Disney World 50th Anniversary of Disney Park Magic, Barbie and the Magic of Pegasus, Pillsbury Company, Animal Planet (2nd Edition).
2006 Barbie & the 12 Dancing Princesses, Doodlebug, Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends, Mother Goose, Greendog's Space Station Discovery, Snoopy's Doghouse, Charlotte's Web, History Channel's New York Tin Toy.
2007 The Care Bears Winter Fun-Derland, International Cele-Bear-Ation Clock Tower, M&M's Chocolate Candies on Broadway, Music Bigger than Life, Barbie as the Island Princess, FETCH! with Ruff Ruffman.
2008 Castle of Dreams, Gwen Stefani's Harajuku Lovers, Oneida Indian Nation True Spirit of Thanksgiving, Musical Innovation|Bigger Than Life, Jimmy Dean Shine On, Smurfs Mushroom house, Ocean Spray Woodland Family Gathering, Delta Airlines Winter Wonderland in Central Park.
2009 Hamburger Helper Local Heroes Helping Everyday, Santa's Sleigh (3rd Edition), Yo Gabba Gabba! There's a Party in My City
2010 South Dakota Great Faces Great Places Mount Rushmore's American Pride, Morton Salt Home Baked Goodness, Dora's Christmas Carol Adventure, Homewood Suites On the Roll Again, Office Max Elves Raise the Roof, Despicable Me, Pokémon Black and White's Reshiram and Zekrom,
2011 Universal Orlando Resort's P.B. Polar Bear, Zhuniverse, National Hockey League Frozen Fall Fun, Macy's Gift of Freedom (Statue of Liberty), Planters' Nut Mobile (second Edition), 85th Parade all stars
2012 Sprout Daytime, Play Time, Night Time Too; Goldfish on Parade, Gibson Guitar Corporation Music Is Our Life, 75th Anniversary of March Madness, Domino Sugar Stirrin’ Up Sweet Sensations, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
2013 The Enchanting World of Lindt Chocolate, Royal Caribbean International Windows to the World at Sea, Uncle Sam's Top Hat by Drake's, SeaWorld Sea of Surprises, Viking Confetti Catapult, Despicable Me 2 Delicious Yet Despicable, Cirque du Soleil's Dreamseeker
2014 Cracker Jack at the Ball Game, Goldieblox Girl Powered Spinning Machine, Dora and Friends Aventuras Fantásticas, Pirate's Booty Treasure Hunt, Sino-American Friendship Association's Beauty of Beijing
2015 Spirit of America's Big City Cheer, National Hockey League, Sino-American Friend Association's Stone Forest of Kunming, KFC The Colonel's Trip to NYC, Avocados from Mexico Casa Fresca Café, Sprout Free to Play, Build-A-Bear Workshop Discover Adventure, Ocean Spray The Cranberry Co-Operative, Macy's Hearts Peanuts (2nd version of Snoopy's Doghouse float), Hallmark Channel Heartwarming Holiday Countdown

Performers and acts[edit]

In addition to the well-known balloons and floats, the Parade also features live music and other performances. College and high school marching bands from across the country participate in the parade, and the television broadcasts feature performances by established and up-and-coming singers and bands. The Rockettes of Radio City Music Hall are a classic performance as well (having performed annually since 1957 as the last of the pre-parade acts to perform), as are cheerleaders and dancers chosen by the National Cheerleaders Association from various high schools across the country. The parade concludes with the arrival of Santa Claus to ring in the Christmas and holiday season.

On the NBC telecast from in front of the flagship Macy's store on Broadway and 34th Street, the marching bands perform live music. Most "live" performances by musicals and individual artists lip sync to the studio, soundtrack or cast recordings of their songs,[15] due to the technical difficulties of attempting to sing into a wireless microphone while in a moving vehicle (performers typically perform on the floats themselves); the NBC-flagged microphones used by performers on floats are almost always non-functioning props. Live performances with no use of recorded vocals, are very rare in the parade.

Featured performers[edit]

Year Performers
2003 Hilary Duff, Kelly Clarkson, Michael Bolton, Clay Aiken, Kristin Chenoweth, Ruben Studdard, Kool and the Gang, Stacie Orrico and Idina Menzel.
2004 Barenaked Ladies, Fantasia Barrino, Andrea Bocelli, Ryan Cabrera, Peter Cetera, Gavin DeGraw, José Feliciano, Tamyra Gray, Nina Sky, Raven-Symoné, Brooke Shields, Jeff Timmons, and Hayley Westenra
2005 Adrien Brody, Harry Connick Jr., LeAnn Rimes, Carrie Underwood, The Beach Boys, Rihanna, Aaron Neville, Brian McKnight, Kristin Chenoweth, Rita Coolidge, Puffy AmiYumi and Michael Feinstein
2006 Julie Andrews, Laurie Berkner, Chris Brown, RBD, Cheyenne, Ciara, Miley Cyrus, Diana DeGarmo, Gloria Estefan, Renee Fleming, Big Apple Circus, Natalie Grant, Hall & Oates, High School Musical cast, Jonas Brothers, Josh Kelley, Darlene Love, Barry Manilow, Sarah McLachlan, Tara Conner, Sandi Patty, John Tartaglia, Ali Larter, Denise Van Outen, and Connie Britton
2007 Ashley Tisdale, Bindi Irwin, Terri Irwin, Corbin Bleu, Dolly Parton, Good Charlotte, Jonas Brothers, Lifehouse, Menudo, Ne-Yo, Nikki Blonsky, Sarah Brightman, Jonathan Groff, Lea Michele, Wynonna Judd, and Jordin Sparks
2008 Kristin Chenoweth, Darius Rucker, James Taylor, Charice Pempengco, Miranda Cosgrove, Miley Cyrus, David Archuleta, Shontelle, Idina Menzel, Rick Astley (as part of a Rickroll during the parade), Ashanti, Tony Bennett, Harry Connick Jr., Faith Hill, Beyoncé, Push Play, and The Clique Girlz
2009 Tiffany Thornton, Kermit the Frog, Keke Palmer, Andrea Bocelli, Bello Nock, Big Apple Circus, Boys Like Girls, Alan Cumming, Billy Currington, Yo Gabba Gabba! cast, Jimmy Fallon and The Roots (Late Night with Jimmy Fallon), Gloria Gaynor, Emily Hughes, Jane Krakowski, Katharine McPhee, Sesame Street cast, Mitchel Musso, Pizzarelli Quartet, Jay Sean, Ziggy Marley, and Carly Simon
2010 Kylie Minogue, Carrie Underwood, Kanye West, Jessica Simpson, Gladys Knight, India.Arie, Big Time Rush, Big Apple Circus, Arlo Guthrie, Betty Buckley, Ann Hampton Callaway, Miranda Cosgrove, Isabella Collins, Gloriana, Michael Grimm, Juanes, Keri Hilson, Eric Hutchinson, Victoria Justice, Mannheim Steamroller, Jimmy Fallon and The Roots (Late Night with Jimmy Fallon), Sesame Street cast and Muppets, Kyle Swann, Rima Fakih, the cast of Power Rangers Samurai, Crystal Shawanda, Joan Rivers, and Melissa Rivers
2011 The Cast of Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark, Rodney Atkins, Big Apple Circus, Mary J. Blige, Cobra Starship, Neil Diamond, Michael Feinstein, The Fresh Beat Band, Cee Lo Green, Avril Lavigne, Shelby Lynne, Mannheim Steamroller, China Anne McClain, Scotty McCreery, Ingrid Michaelson, Sesame Street cast and Muppets, Savannah Outen, the cast of Power Rangers Samurai, Daniel Radcliffe, Miss America 2011 Teresa Scanlan, Willard Scott, Sarah Smithson, Straight No Chaser, United States Naval Academy Glee Club, Johnny Weir, Zendaya and the Nickelodeon Queens
2012 Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Trace Adkins, Flo Rida, the Big Apple Circus, Colbie Caillat, Teresa Castillo, Rachel Crow, Thirza Defoe, Jimmy Fallon and The Roots (Late Night with Jimmy Fallon), Whoopi Goldberg, Chris Isaak, Carly Rae Jepsen, Karmin, Christian Laettner, Sandra Lee, Mannheim Steamroller, Jennette McCurdy, Don McLean, Megan & Liz, Olivia Culpo, the cast of Sesame Street, Neon Trees, the cast of Power Rangers Megaforce, Cody Simpson, Gabby Douglas, McKayla Maroney, Aly Raisman, Kyla Ross and Jordyn Wieber, PS22 Chorus, The Wanted, Geoffrey Zakarian, and The Kidz Bop Kids.
2013 The cast of NBC's The Sound of Music Live!, Debby Ryan, Big Apple Circus, Cherokee National Youth Choir, the cast of The Sunny Side Up Show, Cirque du Soleil, Gavin DeGraw, Brett Eldredge, Fall Out Boy, The Summer Set, Jimmy Fallon and The Roots (Late Night with Jimmy Fallon), the cast of Sesame Street, Fifth Harmony, Florida Georgia Line, Goo Goo Dolls, Ariana Grande, Jack Hanna, Megan Hilty, Joan Jett and the Blackhearts, Sharon Jones and the Dap Kings, Sandra Lee, Cher Lloyd, Austin Mahone, Richard Simmons, Mannheim Steamroller, Miss America 2014 Nina Davuluri, Bart Oates, Amani Toomer and Hines Ward; Cam Neely and Mike Richter, Kristin Chenoweth, Kellie Pickler, and the cast of Duck Dynasty
2014 The cast of NBC's Peter Pan Live!, Renee Fleming, William Blake, Idina Menzel, Before You Exit, Becky G, MKTO, Needtobreathe, Sabrina Carpenter, Lucy Hale, KISS, Cole Swindell, Nick Jonas, The Madden Brothers, Quvenzhané Wallis, The Vamps, Meghan Trainor, Nia Sanchez, Romeo Santos and Pentatonix.
2015 The cast of NBC's The Wiz Live!, Jordin Sparks, the cast of Sesame Street with Questlove, Trey Songz, Jake Owen, Andy Grammer, Panic! At The Disco, Plain White T's, Shawn Mendes, Cirque du Soleil's Dreamseeker, Mipso, Daughtry, Sprout cast, Andra Day, Big Apple Circus, Sofia Carson, Rachel Platten, Prince Royce, the cast of School of Rock, MercyMe, Jennifer Nettles, Train, Pat Benatar & Neil Giraldo and Mariah Carey

Broadway shows[edit]

Every year, cast members from a number of Broadway shows (usually shows that debuted that year) perform either in the parade, or immediately preceding the parade in front of Macy's (since NBC broadcasts the parade's start, the performances are shown during the wait for the parade itself). The 2007 parade was notable as it took place during a strike by the I.A.T.S.E. (a stagehands' union), and as such, Legally Blonde, the one performing musical affected by the strike, performed in show logo shirts, with makeshift props and no sets. The other three shows that year performed in theaters that were not affected by the strike.

Year Performances
1980 The Pirates of Penzance
1984 The Tap Dance Kid
1989 Meet Me in St. Louis
1992 Guys and Dolls
1993 The Who's Tommy
1994 Beauty and the Beast, Grease, Show Boat
1995 How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying, Smokey Joe's Cafe
1998 Cabaret, Footloose, The Scarlet Pimpernel, Annie Get Your Gun, Peter Pan
1999 Saturday Night Fever, Fosse, Swing, Kiss Me, Kate
2000 The Music Man, Seussical, Swing, Annie Get Your Gun
2001 Mamma Mia!, 42nd Street, Thou Shalt Not, Contact
2002 Hairspray, Oklahoma!, The Producers, Thoroughly Modern Millie
2003 Wicked, The Boy From Oz, Little Shop of Horrors, Never Gonna Dance
2004 Bombay Dreams, All Shook Up, La Cage aux Folles, Wonderful Town, Good Vibrations
2005 Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, Jersey Boys, Sweet Charity
2006 A Chorus Line, Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, The Color Purple, Spamalot
2007 Legally Blonde, Mary Poppins, Young Frankenstein, Xanadu
2008 White Christmas, In the Heights, South Pacific, The Little Mermaid
2009 Billy Elliot, Bye, Bye Birdie, Hair, Shrek
2010 Memphis, American Idiot, Elf, Million Dollar Quartet
2011 Turn Off the Dark, Priscilla, Queen of the Desert, How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying, Sister Act, Newsies
2012 Annie, Bring It On, Elf, Cinderella, Nice Work If You Can Get It
2013 Matilda, Motown, Pippin, Kinky Boots
2014 A Gentleman's Guide to Love and Murder, Honeymoon in Vegas, The Last Ship, On the Town, Side Show
2015 On Your Feet!, The King and I, Finding Neverland, Something Rotten!, Fiddler on the Roof, School of Rock

Marching bands[edit]

Year Performances
2013 Concord High School Marching Band, Elkhart, Indiana; Lakota West High School Marching Band, West Chester, Ohio; Macy's Great American Marching Band, USA; James Madison University Marching Royal Dukes, Harrisonburg, Virginia; Marian Catholic High School Marching Band, Chicago Heights, Illinois; Mountain View High School Marching Band, Mesa, Arizona; NYPD Marching Band, New York; Ooltewah High School Marching Band, Tennessee; Tarpon Springs High School Marching Band, Florida; Union High School Marching Band, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Quantico Marine Corps Band, Quantico, Virginia; University of Massachusetts Minuteman Marching Band
2014 American Fork High School Marching Band, Utah; Bahamas All Stars Marching Band, Nassau, Bahamas; Baldwinsville High School Marching Band, Baldwinsville, New York; Center Grove High School, Greenwood, Indiana; Winston Churchill High School Marching Band, San Antonio, Texas; Paul Laurence Dunbar High School Marching Band, Lexington, Kentucky; Foothill High School Marching Band, Henderson, Nevada; Georgia State University Marching Band, Atlanta, Georgia; Macy's Great American Marching Band, USA; Madison Scouts Drum & Bugle Corps Anniversary Corps, Madison, Wisconsin; New York City Police Department Marching Band, New York; Western Carolina University Marching Band, Cullowhee, North Carolina
2015 Macy's Great American Marching Band; Stephen F. Austin State University Marching Band, Nacogdoches, Texas; University of Virginia Marching Band, Charlottesville, Virginia; New York City Police Department Marching Band, New York; Gulf Coast High School Marching Band, Naples, Florida; Walled Lake Central High School Viking Marching Band, Walled Lake, Michigan; Munford High School Marching Band, Munford, Tennessee; Nogales High School Noble Regiment Marching Band, La Puente, California; Lewis Cass High School Marching Band, Walton, Indiana; New York City Fire Department Emerald Society Pipes & Drums, New York; North Hardin High School Marching Band, Radcliff, Kentucky; West Chester University Marching Band, West Chester, Pennsylvania; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Marching Band, Champaign, Illinois

Special guests[edit]

For the 10th anniversary of the September 11th attacks in 2011, the Macy's Thanksgiving Parade invited family members from Tuesday's Children, a family service organization that has made a long-term commitment to those directly impacted by the attacks and terrorism around the world, to cut the ribbon at the start of the parade with NBC's Al Roker and led the parade with Amy Kule, the Parade's executive producer.

Television coverage[edit]

Tom the Turkey and Underdog arriving at Macy's Herald Square during the 1979 edition of the parade.

More than 44 million people watch the parade on television on an annual basis. It was first televised locally in New York City in 1939 as an experimental broadcast.[16] No television stations broadcast the parade in 1940 or 1941, but when the parade returned in 1945 after the wartime suspension, local broadcasts also resumed.[17][18] The parade began its network television appearances on CBS in 1948, the year that regular television network programming began.[19][20] NBC has been the official broadcaster of the event since 1952, though CBS (which has a studio in Times Square) also carries unauthorized coverage under the title The Thanksgiving Day Parade on CBS.[21] Since the parade takes place in public, the parade committee can endorse an official broadcaster, but they cannot award exclusive rights as other events (such as sporting events, which take place inside restricted-access stadiums) have the authority to do. The rerouting of the parade that was implemented for the 2012 event (see below) moved the parade out of the view of CBS's cameras and thus made it significantly more difficult for the network to cover the parade; CBS nevertheless continues to cover the parade to the same extent as in previous years.

At first, the telecasts were only an hour long. In 1961, the telecast expanded to two hours,[22] and was then reduced to 90 minutes in 1962, before reverting to a two-hour telecast in 1965; all three hours of the parade were televised by 1969.[23] The event began to be broadcast in color in 1960.[24] NBC airs the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade live in the Eastern Time Zone, but tape delays the telecast elsewhere in the continental U.S. and territories from the Central Time Zone westward to allow the program to air in the same 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. timeslot across its owned-and-operated and affiliated stations (since the morning program's initial expansion to three hours in 2000, the parade pre-empts the final two hours of Today as a result).[25] NBC began airing a same-day afternoon rebroadcast of the parade in 2009 (replacing the annual broadcast of Miracle on 34th Street, which NBC had lost the broadcast television rights to that year). CBS's unauthorized coverage airs live in most time zones, allowing viewers to see the parade as many as two hours before the official NBC coverage airs in their area; CBS still broadcasts the parade on delay on the West Coast, immediately after the Detroit Lions Thanksgiving game in years when CBS carries it, or at 9 a.m. local time in years they carry the Dallas Cowboys Thanksgiving game.[21]

From 1962 to 1971, NBC's coverage was hosted by Lorne Greene (who was then appearing on NBC's Bonanza) and Betty White. Ed McMahon co-hosted in 1971, then hosted until 1982. Since 1982, NBC has appointed at least one of the hosts of Today to emcee the television broadcast, starting with Bryant Gumbel, who hosted the parade until 1987. From 1987 to 1997, NBC's coverage was hosted by longtime Today weather anchor Willard Scott. During that period, their co-hosts included Mary Hart, Sandy Duncan, and Today colleagues Deborah Norville and Katie Couric. In recent years, NBC's coverage has been hosted by Today anchors Matt Lauer, Meredith Vieira (from 2006 to 2010), Ann Curry (for the 2011 telecast only) and Savannah Guthrie (since 2012) as well as Today weather anchor Al Roker.

From the early 1980s until circa 1994, the television broadcast was produced and directed by Dick Schneider; since circa 1994, it has been executive produced by Brad Lachman (who has otherwise been known for producing reality television series), produced by Bill Bracken and directed by veteran sitcom director Gary Halvorson. Announcements during the telecast were first provided by Don Pardo, followed by Lynda Lopez, the telecast's only female announcer, who served during the decade wherein Willard Scott was the parade's host; from circa 1994 to 2010, announcer duties were helmed by Joel Godard (who also served as the announcer for Late Night with Conan O'Brien for much of that period), and then were assumed by Today announcer Les Marshak with the 2011 telecast. The musical director for the television coverage is veteran composer/arranger Milton DeLugg.

CBS's coverage was originally part of the "All-American Thanksgiving Day Parade," a broadcast that included footage from multiple parades across North America, including parades at Detroit, Philadelphia and Disneyland (the latter was later replaced by Opryland USA in 1997 and after that Miami Beach), and taped footage of the Toronto Santa Claus Parade (taped usually the second or third weekend of November) and the Aloha Floral Parade in Honolulu (which usually took place in September). Beginning in 2004, however, CBS has focused exclusively on the Macy's parade, but avoids using the Macy's name due to the lack of an official license. To compensate for the fact that the Broadway and music performances can only appear on NBC, CBS adds their own pre-recorded performances (also including Broadway shows, although different from the ones that are part of the official parade and recorded off-site) to fill out the special.[26]

For the 1997 parade, MTV guest reporters, Beavis and Butt-head, with host Kurt Loder, provided their usual style of commentary on aspects of the parade, and of their take on Thanksgiving in general. The special, titled Beavis and Butt-head Do Thanksgiving, included a balloon of Beavis and Butt-head spectating from their couch. The balloon was not participating in the parade, but stationed on top of a building alongside the parade route.

Radio coverage is provided by CBS Radio-owned WINS (1010 AM) in New York City. It is one of the few times throughout the year in which that station breaks away from its all-news radio format.

Parade route[edit]

The Parade has always taken place in Manhattan. The parade originally started from 145th Street in Harlem and ended at Herald Square, making a 6-mile (9.7 km) route.

In the 1930s, the balloons were inflated in the area of 110th Street and Amsterdam Avenue near St. John the Divine Cathedral. The parade proceeded South on Amsterdam Avenue to 106th Street and turned east. At Columbus Avenue, the balloons had to be lowered to go under the Ninth Avenue El. Past the El tracks, the parade proceeded through 106th Street to Central Park West and turned south to terminate at Macy's Department Store.

A new route was established for the 2009 parade. From 77th Street and Central Park West, the route went south along Central Park to Columbus Circle, then east along Central Park South. The parade would then make a right turn at 7th Avenue and go south to Times Square. At 42nd Street, the parade turned left and went east, then at 6th Avenue turned right again at Bryant Park. Heading south on 6th Avenue, the parade turned right at 34th Street (at Herald Square) and proceeded west to the terminating point at 7th Avenue where the floats are taken down.[27][28] The 2009 route change eliminated Broadway completely, where the parade has traveled down for decades. The City of New York said that the new route would provide more space for the parade, and more viewing space for spectators. Another reason for implementing the route change is the city's plan to turn Broadway into a pedestrian-only zone at Times Square.

Another new route was introduced with the 2012 parade. This change is similar to the 2009 route, but eliminated Times Square altogether.

It is not advised to view the parade from Columbus Circle, as balloon teams race through it due to higher winds in this flat area. New York City officials preview the parade route and try to eliminate as many potential obstacles as possible, including rotating overhead traffic signals out of the way.

Macy's Holiday Parade[edit]

Since 2001, Macy's Studios has partnered with the Universal Orlando Resort (owned by NBC parent NBCUniversal) to bring balloons and floats from New York City to the theme park in Florida every holiday season. The parade is performed daily and includes the iconic Santa Claus float. Performers from the Orlando area are cast as various clowns, and the park used to invite guests to be "balloon handlers" for the parade.[29]

Incidents and injuries[edit]

  • In 1927, the Felix The Cat balloon got caught in some telephone wires and caught fire. The fire was put out, but Felix was removed from the parade.
  • In 1956, the Mighty Mouse balloon escaped from its handlers and was deflated near Columbus Circle.
  • In 1957, the Popeye the Sailor balloon's hat filled with water during heavy rain, which caused the balloon to go off-course and pour water on the crowd. The balloon's hat was remade for the next parade, so it did not cause any water spillages.
  • In 1962, the Donald Duck balloon's hat got filled with water during heavy rain, and also drenched water on the crowd.
  • In 1982, the Bullwinkle balloon sprang a catastrophic nose leak just a few blocks shy of the finish line.[30]
  • In 1985, the Kermit the Frog balloon tore at the stomach after colliding with a tree due to heavy rain.
  • In 1986, a Raggedy Ann balloon crashed into a lamppost and sent a lamp into the street. A Superman balloon also featured in that year's parade had its hand torn off by a tree.[31] Betty Boop had also collapsed onto the ground a few yards away from the finish line and Olive Oyl had her arm ripped off, but her hand remained standing (because it was a separate part connected).
  • In 1989, gusty winds caused the Snoopy and Bugs Bunny balloons to be punctured by trees before the parade started, and could not start their march.
  • In 1991, the Kermit the Frog balloon collided with a tree in Central Park West, and his head deflated.
  • In 1993, high winds pushed the Rex the Dinosaur balloon into a street light and caused his head to pop. The Sonic the Hedgehog balloon crashed into a lamppost at Columbus Circle and injured an off-duty police officer.[32] The Bart Simpson balloon also had his T-shirt ripped open, and Spider-Man had his head partly deflated after colliding by trees.
  • In 1994, the Barney balloon tore its side on a lamppost; no one was injured.[31]
  • In 1995, the Dudley the Dragon balloon that was leading the parade was speared and deflated on a lamppost and showered glass on the crowd below.,[31] Sonic the Hedgehog was also sent into a lamppost that year, and SkyDancer had her face deflated by a tree.
  • In 1996, unexpected "wind demons" caused the Woody Woodpecker balloon's left hand to get ripped off by a tree.
  • In 1997, high winds pushed the Cat in the Hat balloon into a lamppost.[33] The falling debris struck a parade-goer, fracturing her skull and leaving her in a coma for a month. 3 other people were also injured from the lamp post. Size rules were implemented the next year, eliminating larger balloons like the Cat in the Hat.[34] The same high winds also caused the New York City Police Department to stab and stomp down the Barney balloon after that balloon hit a lamp post, and also the Pink Panther balloon after he collapsed over crowd concerns.[31] the Peter Rabbit balloon leaned too close to a lamppost, and almost popped its ear and Quik Bunny deflated on a lamp post and collapsed. Many other minor accidents also happened due to the wind, Arthur ended up getting a damaged arm, Garfield's left back paw was damaged (his tail was damaged in the overnight windy conditions) Bumpe's left legs were damaged. Cloe the Holiday Clown, Flying Fish and Sonic the Hedgehog were damaged during the Overnight winds. The last 2 balloons in the parade, Eben Bear and Ms. Petula Pig, were removed from the parade after the Cat in the Hat Incident even though they were not damaged.
  • In 1998, the Wild Thing balloon's left horn was torn open by a tree right when it started and had to be removed from the parade. Additionally, the Garfield, Quik Bunny, and Spider-Man balloons were damaged by the overnight rainy weather conditions, and could not start their march ether.
  • In 2000, the Rocky balloon was accidentally deflated during preparation, and could not appear on the back of the Bullwinkle balloon.
  • In 2001, the Ronald McDonald balloon had his left arm shredded after colliding with trees.
  • In 2003, the Gorgeous Gobbler novelty balloon that was leading the parade had some of his feathers shredded by a tree.
  • In 2004, the Garfield and Clifford the Big Red Dog balloons were snagged by trees. No damage was done to Clifford, but Garfield suffered damage to his left paw. Additionally, the Charlie Brown balloon almost crashed into a street light, as gusty winds pushed him dangerously close to it. The SpongeBob SquarePants balloon was snagged by a lamppost at Times Square, but was freed.
  • In 2005, the M&M's chocolate candies balloon caught on a streetlight in Times Square. Two sisters were struck by falling debris, suffering minor injuries. As a result, new safety rules were introduced.[35] Those rules came in handy for the 2006 parade, as balloons were lowered because of rain and high winds. The M&M's balloon was retired after 2006, and replaced by a float saluting Broadway theatre and musicals. Additionally, the Barney balloon was nearly blown away, and his foot got ripped by a street light.
  • In 2006, SpongeBob SquarePants once again snagged a Lamp Post, and was freed.
  • In 2008, a Keith Haring-inspired balloon hit the NBC Broadcast Booth, sending the hosts off air for a few minutes.
  • In 2010, the Wiggle Worm novelty balloon was punctured by a One-Way sign in an attempt to spin. SpongeBob once again snagged a Lamp Post, and was freed.
  • In 2011, the Kool Aid Man balloonicle was tipped over when it was being deflated, and one of Ronald McDonald's ice skates got deflated.
  • In 2012, the Buzz Lightyear balloon tore a massive hole in the helmet and was caught on tape in a nearby river. Also, the SpongeBob SquarePants and Pikachu balloons weren't inflated very well.
  • In 2013, the Spider-Man balloon had his left arm become partially deflated after impacting a tree along Central Park. Sonic the Hedgehog flailed in the wind at the start and also got his left hand caught on a lamp post, but it was freed, and one of the Buzz Lightyear balloon buggies ran over a female balloon handler, injuring her foot.

In popular culture[edit]

  • The 1947 film Miracle on 34th Street, begins with the parade, as do most of its remakes. The film centers around the real Santa Claus being hired to work at Macy's after its own Santa impersonator gets drunk during the parade. NBC, in its telecasts of the parade, often showed the original 1947 film on Thanksgiving afternoon, following parade coverage.
  • In the Seinfeld episode "The Mom and Pop Store", Elaine wins a spot on the parade route for her boss, Mr. Pitt, to hold the Woody Woodpecker balloon.
  • The first Thanksgiving-themed episode of Friends centered on the accidental release of the (unused at the time) "Underdog" balloon.
  • "Macy's Day Parade" is a song by Green Day.
  • In 2008, a Coca-Cola CGI ad aired in the United States during Super Bowl XLII. The commercial's plot centered around Underdog and fictional Stewie Griffin balloons chasing a Coke bottle-shaped balloon through New York City. The spot ended with a Charlie Brown balloon holding the Coke balloon. The advertisement won a Silver Lion Award at the annual Lions International Advertising Festival in Cannes, France that year, and the clip of the commercial with the Griffin balloon was featured in a Macy's commercial in October 2008 (along with clips from Miracle on 34th Street, I Love Lucy, Seinfeld and other media where the Macy's department store was mentioned). The commercial was also referenced in an episode of Family Guy. Stewie, who is one of the main characters in the show, is seen watching the parade only to see the balloon of himself in the parade.



  1. ^ a b Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 22. November 2012.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  2. ^ Grippo, Robert (2004). Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. San Francisco, CA: Arcadia Publishing. p. 9.
  3. ^ Grippo, Robert M.; Hoskins, Christopher (2003). Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. Charlestown, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 9780738535623.
  4. ^ Sweet, Melissa. Balloons Over Broadway; The True Story of the Puppeteer of Macy's Parade. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2011. Print
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ WOR schedule, "Today on the Radio", The New York Times Nov. 24, 1932, p. 40. "R adio Today", The New York Times, Nov. 20, 1999, p. 54.
  7. ^ "Radio Today", The New York Times, Nov. 22, 1945, p. 36. "On the Radio", The New York Times, Nov. 22, 1957, p. 58.
  8. ^ "Mayor Plays Role of Dragon Slayer", The New York Times, Nov. 14, 1942, p. 17.
  9. ^ "Get Set, Children, and Your Parents, Too; Genii Are Coming in Thanksgiving Parade", The New York Times, Nov. 14, 2010, p. 27.
  10. ^ Firm Flying High With Order for 4 Giant Macy's Parade Balloons - Los Angeles Times. (1987-11-25). Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
  11. ^ Langsner, Meron "Parading With the Pink Panther Pulling Posse: An Account of Being a Balloon Hander in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade," Puppetry International , Fall/Winter 2007- Issue No. 22
  12. ^ New York Daily News: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 28. November 2008, abgerufen am 28. November 2008.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  13. ^ a b "Spider-Man Returning to Macy's Thanksgiving Day Paradede", Associated Press via WCBS (AM), 17 August 2009 Archivado el 6 de November de 2009 en Wayback Machine.
  14. ^
  15. ^ Jensen, Elizabeth (November 25, 2012). At ‘Sesame Street,’ a Void in a Close-Knit Troupe. The New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2012. "The puppet was featured on a Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade float, with another puppeteer acting to Mr. Clash’s taped voice."
  16. ^ "Television" section of "Today on the Radio", The New York Times, November 23, 1939, p. 40.
  17. ^ "Radio Today" (with television listings), The New York Times, Nov. 20, 1941, p. 54.
  18. ^ "Radio Today" (with television listings), The New York Times, Nov. 22, 1945, p. 36.
  19. ^ "Radio and Television", The New York Times, November 15, 1948, p. 44.
  20. ^ "Radio and Television", The New York Times, November 21, 1949, p. 44.
  21. ^ a b "The Thanksgiving Day Parade on CBS" will be anchored live by "The Early Show's" Dave Price and Maggie Rodriguez from New York's Times Square, Thursday, Nov. 27 on the CBS Television Network. CBS press release (2008-11-13). Retrieved 2010-06-21.
  22. ^ "Television", The New York Times, November 23, 1961, p. 71.
  23. ^ "Television", The New York Times, November 27, 1969, p. 75.
  24. ^ "Television", The New York Times, November 24, 1960, p. 67.
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ Gioia, Michael (November 26, 2015). What Was It Like to Perform on the Macy's Parade? Over 20 Broadway Actors Remember a Dream Come True! Playbill. Retrieved November 26, 2015. “We pre-recorded the opening number of the show for the CBS broadcast, down on South Ferry.”—Carly Hughes
  27. ^ New route plan - Macy's Website[dead link]
  28. ^ "City to Change Route of Thanksgiving Day Parade". NY1 News. 10 April 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
  29. ^ Universal Studios, Orlando: Theme Parks, Attractions, Accommodations Archivado el 17 de December de 2006 en Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ "Macy's 70th Sails On Buoyantly". New York Times. 1996-11-29. Retrieved 2012-11-22.
  31. ^ a b c d Gaouette, Nicole (November 25, 2005). "NYC Parade Again Marred by Accident". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  32. ^ Chan, Sewell (2005-11-27). "Site of Balloon Accident Is Known for Its Crosswinds". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
  33. ^ Martin, Douglas (1997-11-28). "Macy's Parade of Balloons Gets One Thing It Doesn't Need: Wind". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
  34. ^ "Macy's presents safer parade". CNN. 1998-11-26. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
  35. ^ "New safety rules for NYC Thanksgiving parade after balloon crash". Associated Press. Retrieved 2006-10-18.[dead link]

Further reading

  • William L. Bird, Jr. Holidays on Display. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History in Association with Princeton Architectural Press, 2007.

External links[edit]

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