|State of Israel|
Anthem: Template:Native phrase
|Ethnic groups (2014)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary republic|
|Independence from the British Mandate of Palestine (UK)|
|14 May 1948|
|1 May 1949|
|20770⁄22072[note 1] km2 (0.36333 sq mi) (153rd)|
• Water (%)
|2.12 (440 km2 / 170 mi2)|
• 2014 estimate
• 2008 census
|387.63/km2 (1,004.0/sq mi) (34th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|$305.707 billion |
• Per capita
medium · 66th
|HDI (2013)|| 0.888|
very high · 19th
|Currency||Israeli new shekel (Script error: No such module "Vorlage:lang".) (ILS )|
|Time zone||Israel Standard Time (UTC+2)|
• Summer (DST)
|Israel Summer Time (UTC+3)|
|Drives on the||right|
Israel Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:IPAc-en/data' not found. or Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:IPAc-en/data' not found., officially the State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Medīnat Yisrā'el, Template:IPA-he; Arabic: Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Exponential search' not found., Dawlat Isrāʼīl, Template:IPA-ar), is a country in Western Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria in the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories comprising the West Bank and Gaza Strip on the east and southwest, respectively, and Egypt and the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea to the south. It contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. Israel's financial center is Tel Aviv, while Jerusalem is both its designated capital and the most populous individual city under the country's governmental administration. Israeli sovereignty over Jerusalem is internationally disputed.[note 2]
On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly recommended the adoption and implementation of the Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine. Borders for a new Jewish state were specified by the UN but ultimately not recognized by either Israel or neighboring countries. The end of the British Mandate for Palestine was set for midnight on 14 May 1948. That day, David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the Zionist Organization and president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, declared "the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel," which would start to function from the termination of the mandate. Neighboring Arab armies invaded the former Palestinian mandate on the next day and fought the Israeli forces. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied the West Bank, Sinai Peninsula (1956–57, 1967–82), part of South Lebanon (1982–2000), Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights. It extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed. Israel’s occupation of Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem is the world's longest military occupation in modern times.[note 3]
The population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2014 to be 8,146,300 people. It is the world's only Jewish-majority state; 6,212,000 citizens, or 74.9% of Israelis, are designated as Jewish. The country's second largest group of citizens are denoted as Arabs, with 1,718,400 people (including the Druze and most East Jerusalem Arabs). The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Muslims; the rest are Christians and Druze. Other minorities include Maronites, Samaritans, Dom people, Black Hebrew Israelites, other Sub-Saharan Africans, Armenians, Circassians, Roma, Vietnamese boat people, and others. Israel also hosts a significant population of non-citizen foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and Democratic State. Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The Prime Minister serves as head of government and the Knesset serves as Israel's legislative body. Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 43rd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2012. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the fifth highest in Asia, and has the one of the highest life expectancies in the world.
Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" (Medinat Yisrael) after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel ("the Land of Israel"), Zion, and Judea, were considered and rejected. In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett.
The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish nation respectively. The name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob (Standard Yisraʾel, Isrāʾīl; Septuagint Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Exponential search' not found. Israēl; "struggle with God") who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he successfully wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus". The earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE).
The area is also known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. From 1920 the whole region was known as Palestine (under British Mandate) until the Israeli Declaration of Independence of 1948. Through the centuries, the territory was known by a variety of other names, including Judea, Samaria, Southern Syria, Syria Palaestina, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Iudaea Province, Coele-Syria, Retjenu, and Canaan.
The notion of the "Land of Israel", known in Hebrew as Eretz Yisrael, has been important and sacred to the Jewish people since Biblical times. According to the Torah, God promised the land to the three Patriarchs of the Jewish people. On the basis of scripture, the period of the three Patriarchs has been placed somewhere in the early 2nd millennium BCE, and the first Kingdom of Israel was established around the 11th century BCE. Subsequent Israelite kingdoms and states ruled intermittently over the next four hundred years, and are known from various extra-biblical sources.
The first record of the name Israel (as Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Exponential search' not found.) occurs in the Merneptah stele, erected for Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah c. 1209 BCE, "Israel is laid waste and his seed is not." This "Israel" was a cultural and probably political entity of the central highlands, well enough established to be perceived by the Egyptians as a possible challenge to their hegemony, but an ethnic group rather than an organised state; Ancestors of the Israelites may have included Semites native to Canaan and the Sea Peoples. McNutt says, "It is probably safe to assume that sometime during Iron Age a population began to identify itself as 'Israelite'", differentiating itself from the Canaanites through such markers as the prohibition of intermarriage, an emphasis on family history and genealogy, and religion.
Villages had populations of up to 300 or 400, which lived by farming and herding, and were largely self-sufficient; economic interchange was prevalent. Writing was known and available for recording, even in small sites. The archaeological evidence indicates a society of village-like centres, but with more limited resources and a small population. Modern scholars see Israel arising peacefully and internally from existing people in the highlands of Canaan.
Around 930 BCE, the kingdom split into a southern Kingdom of Judah and a northern Kingdom of Israel. From the middle of the 8th century BCE Israel came into increasing conflict with the expanding neo-Assyrian empire. Under Tiglath-Pileser III it first split Israel's territory into several smaller units and then destroyed its capital, Samaria (722 BCE). An Israelite revolt (724–722 BCE) was crushed after the siege and capture of Samaria by the Assyrian king Sargon II. Sargon's son, Sennacherib, tried and failed to conquer Judah. Assyrian records say he leveled 46 walled cities and besieged Jerusalem, leaving after receiving extensive tribute.
In 586 BCE King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, he destroyed Solomon's Temple and exiled the Jews to Babylon. The defeat was also recorded by the Babylonians (see the Babylonian Chronicles).
In 538 BCE, Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon and took over its empire. Cyrus issued a proclamation granting subjugated nations (including the people of Judah) religious freedom (for the original text see the Cyrus Cylinder). According to the Hebrew Bible 50,000 Judeans, led by Zerubabel, returned to Judah and rebuilt the temple. A second group of 5,000, led by Ezra and Nehemiah, returned to Judah in 456 BCE although non-Jews wrote to Cyrus to try to prevent their return.
With successive Persian rule, the region, divided between Syria-Coele province and later the autonomous Yehud Medinata, was gradually developing back into urban society, largely dominated by Judeans. The Greek conquests largely skipped the region without any resistance or interest. Incorporated into Ptolemaic and finally Seleucid Empires, southern Levant was heavily hellenized, building the tensions between Judeans and Greeks. The conflict erupted in 167 BCE with the Maccabean Revolt, which succeeded in establishing an independent Hasmonean Kingdom in Judah, which later expanded over much of modern Israel, as the Seleucids gradually lost control in the region.
The Roman Empire invaded the region in 63 BCE, first taking control of Syria, and then intervening in the Hasmonean civil war. The struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian factions in Judea eventually led to the installation of Herod the Great and consolidation of the Herodian Kingdom as a vassal Judean state of Rome.
With the decline of Herodians, Judea, transformed into a Roman province, became the site of a violent struggle of Jews against Greco-Romans, culminating in the Jewish-Roman Wars, ending in wide-scale destruction, expulsions, and genocide. Jewish presence in the region significantly dwindled after the failure of the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE. Nevertheless, there was a continuous small Jewish presence and Galilee became its religious center. The Mishnah and part of the Talmud, central Jewish texts, were composed during the 2nd to 4th centuries CE in Tiberias and Jerusalem. The region came to be populated predominantly by Greco-Romans on the coast and Samaritans in the hill-country. Christianity was gradually evolving over Roman paganism, when the area under Byzantine rule was transformed into Deocese of the East, as Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda provinces. Through the 5th and 6th centuries, dramatic events of Samaritan Revolts reshaped the land, with massive destruction to Byzantine Christian and Samaritan societies and a resulting decrease of the population. After the Persian conquest and the installation of a short-lived Jewish Commonwealth in 614 CE, the Byzantine Empire reinstalled its rule in 625 CE, resulting in further decline and destruction.
Middle Ages and caliphates
In 635 CE, the region, including Jerusalem, was conquered by Arabs. It remained under Muslim control and predominately Muslim occupancy for the next 1300 years under various caliphates. Control of the region transferred between the Umayyads, Abbasids, and Crusaders throughout the next six centuries, before the area was conquered in 1260 by the Mamluk Sultanate.
In 1099, the Jews were among the rest of the population who tried in vain to defend Jerusalem against the Crusaders. When the city fell, a massacre of 6,000 Jews occurred when the synagogue they were seeking refuge in was set alight. Almost all perished. The Jews almost single-handedly defended Haifa against the crusaders, holding out in the besieged town for a whole month (June–July 1099) in fierce battles. At this time, a full thousand years after the fall of the Jewish state, there were Jewish communities all over the country. Fifty of them are known and include Jerusalem, Tiberias, Ramleh, Ashkelon, Caesarea, and Gaza.
In 1165 Maimonides visited Jerusalem and prayed on the Temple Mount, in the "great, holy house". In 1141 Spanish poet, Yehuda Halevi, issued a call to the Jews to emigrate to the Land of Israel, a journey he undertook himself. In 1187 Ayyubid Sultan Saladin defeated the Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin and took Jerusalem and most of Palestine. In time, Saladin issued a proclamation inviting all Jews to return and settle in Jerusalem, and according to Judah al-Harizi, they did: "From the day the Arabs took Jerusalem, the Israelites inhabited it." al-Harizi compared Saladins decree allowing Jews to re-establish themselves in Jerusalem to the one issued by the Persian Cyrus the Great over 1,600 years earlier.
In 1211, the Jewish community in the country was strengthened by the arrival of a group headed by over 300 rabbis from France and England, among them Rabbi Samson ben Abraham of Sens. Nachmanides, the 13th-century Spanish rabbi and recognised leader of Jewry greatly praised the land of Israel and viewed its settlement as a positive commandment incumbent on all Jews. He wrote "If the gentiles wish to make peace, we shall make peace and leave them on clear terms; but as for the land, we shall not leave it in their hands, nor in the hands of any nation, not in any generation."
In 1260, control passed to the Egyptian Mamluks. In 1266 the Mamluk Sultan Baybars converted the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron into an exclusive Islamic sanctuary and banned Christians and Jews from entering, which previously would be able to enter it for a fee. The ban remained in place until Israel took control of the building in 1967.
In 1470, Isaac b. Meir Latif arrived from Ancona and counted 150 Jewish families in Jerusalem. Thanks to Joseph Saragossi who had arrived in the closing years of the 15th century, Safed and its environs had developed into the largest concentration of Jews in Palestine. With the help of the Sephardic immigration from Spain, the Jewish population had increased to 10,000 by the early 16th century.
In 1516, the region was conquered by the Ottoman Empire; it remained under Turkish rule until the end of the First World War, when Britain defeated the Ottoman forces and set up a military administration across the former Ottoman Syria. In 1920 the territory was divided under the mandate system, and the area which included modern day Israel was named Mandatory Palestine.
Zionism and the British mandate
Since the Jewish diaspora, some Jews have aspired to return to "Zion" and the "Land of Israel", though the amount of effort that should be spent towards such an aim was a matter of dispute. The hopes and yearnings of Jews living in exile are an important theme of the Jewish belief system. After the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, some communities settled in Palestine. During the 16th century, Jewish communities struck roots in the Four Holy Cities—Jerusalem, Tiberias, Hebron, and Safed—and in 1697, Rabbi Yehuda Hachasid led a group of 1,500 Jews to Jerusalem. In the second half of the 18th century, Eastern European opponents of Hasidism, known as the Perushim, settled in Palestine.
The first wave of modern Jewish migration to Ottoman-ruled Palestine, known as the First Aliyah, began in 1881, as Jews fled pogroms in Eastern Europe. Although the Zionist movement already existed in practice, Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl is credited with founding political Zionism, a movement which sought to establish a Jewish state in the Land of Israel, by elevating the Jewish Question to the international plane. In 1896, Herzl published Der Judenstaat (The State of the Jews), offering his vision of a future Jewish state; the following year he presided over the first World Zionist Congress.
The Second Aliyah (1904–14), began after the Kishinev pogrom; some 40,000 Jews settled in Palestine, although nearly half of them left eventually. Both the first and second waves of migrants were mainly Orthodox Jews, although the Second Aliyah included socialist groups who established the kibbutz movement. During World War I, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour sent the Balfour Declaration of 1917 to Baron Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, that stated that Britain intended for the creation of a Jewish homeland within the Palestinian Mandate.
The Jewish Legion, a group primarily of Zionist volunteers, assisted, in 1918, in the British conquest of Palestine. Arab opposition to British rule and Jewish immigration led to the 1920 Palestine riots and the formation of a Jewish militia known as the Haganah (meaning "The Defense" in Hebrew), from which the Irgun and Lehi, or Stern Gang, paramilitary groups later split off. In 1922, the League of Nations granted Britain a mandate over Palestine under terms similar to the Balfour Declaration. The population of the area at this time was predominantly Arab and Muslim, with Jews accounting for about 11%, Christians 9.5%.
Finally, the rise of Nazism and the increasing persecution of Jews in the 1930s led to the Fifth Aliyah, with an influx of a quarter of a million Jews. This was a major cause of the Arab revolt of 1936–39 in which the British killed 5,032 Arabs and wounded 14,760, and resulting in over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. The British introduced restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine with the White Paper of 1939. With countries around the world turning away Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust, a clandestine movement known as Aliyah Bet was organized to bring Jews to Palestine. By the end of World War II, the Jewish population of Palestine had increased to 33% of the total population.
The U.N partition resolution
After World War II, Britain found itself in fierce conflict with the Jewish community over Jewish immigration limits, as well as continued conflict with the Arab community over limit levels. The Haganah joined Irgun and Lehi in an armed struggle against British rule. At the same time, hundreds of thousands of Jewish Holocaust survivors and refugees sought a new life far from their destroyed communities in Europe. The Yishuv attempted to bring these refugees to Palestine but many were turned away or rounded up and placed in detention camps in Atlit and Cyprus by the British. Escalating violence culminated with the 1946 King David Hotel bombing which Bruce Hoffman characterized as one of the “most lethal terrorist incidents of the twentieth century." In 1947, the British government announced it would withdraw from Mandatory Palestine, stating it was unable to arrive at a solution acceptable to both Arabs and Jews.
On 15 May 1947, the General Assembly of the newly formed United Nations resolved that a committee, United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP), be created "to prepare for consideration at the next regular session of the Assembly a report on the question of Palestine". In the Report of the Committee dated 3 September 1947 to the UN General Assembly, the majority of the Committee in Chapter VI proposed a plan to replace the British Mandate with "an independent Arab State, an independent Jewish State, and the City of Jerusalem ... the last to be under an International Trusteeship System". On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union as Resolution 181 (II). The Plan attached to the resolution was essentially that proposed by the majority of the Committee in the Report of 3 September 1947.
The Jewish Agency, which was the recognized representative of the Jewish community, accepted the plan. The Arab League and Arab Higher Committee of Palestine rejected it, and indicated that they would reject any other plan of partition.
The Independence war
On the following day, the 1 December 1947, the Arab Higher Committee proclaimed a three-day strike, and Arab bands began attacking Jewish targets. The Jews were initially on the defensive as civil war broke out, but gradually moved onto the offensive. The Palestinian Arab economy collapsed and 250,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled.
On 14 May 1948, the day before the expiration of the British Mandate, David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, declared "the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel". The only reference in the text of the Declaration to the borders of the new state is the use of the term, Eretz-Israel.
The following day, the armies of four Arab countries—Egypt, Syria, Transjordan and Iraq—entered what had been British Mandatory Palestine, launching the 1948 Arab–Israeli War; Contingents from Yemen, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Sudan joined the war. The apparent purpose of the invasion was to prevent the establishment of the Jewish state at inception, and some Arab leaders talked about driving the Jews into the sea.  According to Benny Morris, Jews felt that the invading Arab armies aimed to slaughter the Jews. The Arab league stated that the invasion was to restore law and order and to prevent further bloodshed.
After a year of fighting, a ceasefire was declared and temporary borders, known as the Green Line, were established. Jordan annexed what became known as the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip. The United Nations estimated that more than 700,000 Palestinians were expelled by or fled from advancing Israeli forces during the conflict—what would became known in Arabic as the Nakba ("catastrophe").
The first years up to Suez Crisis
Israel was admitted as a member of the United Nations by majority vote on 11 May 1949. In the early years of the state, the Labor Zionist movement led by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion dominated Israeli politics.
Immigration to Israel during the late 1940s and early 1950s was aided by the Israeli Immigration Department and the non-government sponsored Organization for Illegal Immigration, called Mossad LeAliyah Bet. Both groups facilitated regular immigration logistics like arranging transportation, but the latter also engaged in clandestine operations in countries, particularly in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where the lives of Jews were believed to be in danger and exit from those places was difficult. The Organization for Illegal Immigration continued to take part in immigration efforts until its disbanding in 1953. An influx of Holocaust survivors and Jews from Arab and Muslim lands immigrated to Israel during the first 3 years and the number of Jews increased from 700,000 to 1,400,000. Many of whom faced persecution and expulsion from their original countries. The immigration was in accordance with the One Million Plan.
Consequently, the population of Israel rose from 800,000 to two million between 1948 and 1958. Between 1948 and 1970, approximately 1,150,000 Jewish refugees relocated to Israel. The immigrants came to Israel for differing reasons. Some believed in a Zionist ideology, while others moved to escape persecution. There were others that did it for the promise of a better life in Israel and a small number that were expelled from their homelands, such as British and French Jews in Egypt after the Suez Crisis.
Some new immigrants arrived as refugees with no possessions and were housed in temporary camps known as ma'abarot; by 1952, over 200,000 immigrants were living in these tent cities. During this period, food, clothes and furniture had to be rationed in what became known as the Austerity Period. The need to solve the crisis led Ben-Gurion to sign a reparations agreement with West Germany that triggered mass protests by Jews angered at the idea that Israel could accept monetary compensation for the Holocaust.
In 1950 Egypt closed the Suez Canal to Israeli shipping and tensions mounted as armed clashes took place along Israel's borders.
During the 1950s, Israel was frequently attacked by Palestinian fedayeen, mainly from the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip, leading to several Israeli counter-raids. In 1956, Israel joined a secret alliance with Great Britain and France aimed at regaining control of the Suez Canal, which the Egyptians had nationalized (see the Suez Crisis). Israel overran the Sinai Peninsula but was pressured to withdraw by the United Nations in return for guarantees of Israeli shipping rights the Red Sea via the Straits of Tiran and the Canal. The war resulted in significant reduction of Israeli border infiltrations.
According to Tom Segev, the refugees were often treated differently according to where they were from. Jews of European descent were considered critical to the strengthening and peopling of Israel, so they were generally allowed to enter Israel first and thus were given abandoned Arab houses to live in. On the other hand, Jews from Middle Eastern and North African countries were viewed by many Ashkenazi Jews as lazy, poor, culturally and religiously backward, and a threat to established communal life in Israel and remained in transit camps for longer periods of time. During the 1950s, the standard of living gap between Ashkenazi and Mizrahi Jews widened so much that tensions developed between the two groups. This tension first moved to hostility during the Wadi Salib riots in 1959; other instances of domestic turmoil would occur over the following decades.
In the early 1960s, Israel captured Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and brought him to Israel for trial. The trial had a major impact on public awareness of the Holocaust. Eichmann remains the only person executed after conviction by an Israeli civilian court.
The 1967 Six Day War and 1973 Yom Kippur War
Since 1964, Arab countries, concerned over Israeli plans to divert waters of the Jordan River into the coastal plain, had been trying to divert the headwaters to deprive Israel of water resources, provoking tensions between Israel on the one hand, and Syria and Lebanon on the other.
Arab nationalists led by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser refused to recognize Israel, and called for its destruction. By 1966, Israeli-Arab relations had deteriorated to the point of actual battles taking place between Israeli and Arab forces. In May 1967, Egypt massed its army near the border with Israel, expelled UN peacekeepers, stationed in the Sinai Peninsula since 1957, and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Other Arab states mobilized their forces as well. Israel reiterated that these actions were a casus belli. On 5 June 1967, Israel launched a pre-emptive strike against Egypt. Jordan, Syria and Iraq responded and attacked Israel. In a Six-Day War, Israeli military superiority was clearly demonstrated against their more numerous Arab foes. Israel defeated Jordan and captured the West Bank, defeated Egypt and captured the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula and defeated Syria and captured the Golan Heights. Jerusalem's boundaries were enlarged, incorporating East Jerusalem, and the 1949 Green Line became the administrative boundary between Israel and the occupied territories.
Following the 1967 war, Israel faced much internal resistance from the Palestinians and Egyptian hostilities in the Sinai. Most important among the various Palestinian and Arab groups was the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), established in 1964, which initially committed itself to "armed struggle as the only way to liberate the homeland". In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Palestinian groups launched a wave of attacks against Israeli and Jewish targets around the world, including a massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. The Israeli government responded with an assassination campaign against the organizers of the massacre, a bombing and a raid on the PLO headquarters in Lebanon.
On 6 October 1973, as Jews were observing Yom Kippur, the Egyptian and Syrian armies launched a surprise attack against Israeli forces in the Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights, that opened the Yom Kippur War. The war ended on 26 October with Israel successfully repelling Egyptian and Syrian forces but having suffered over 2,500 soldiers killed in a war which collectively took between 10-35,000 lives in just 20 days. An internal inquiry exonerated the government of responsibility for failures before and during the war, but public anger forced Prime Minister Golda Meir to resign.
Further conflict and peace treaties
In July 1976 an airliner was hijacked during its flight to Tel Aviv by Palestinian guerrillas and landed at Entebbe, Uganda. Israeli commandos carried out Operation Entebbe in which 102 Israeli hostages were successfully rescued.
The 1977 Knesset elections marked a major turning point in Israeli political history as Menachem Begin's Likud party took control from the Labor Party. Later that year, Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat made a trip to Israel and spoke before the Knesset in what was the first recognition of Israel by an Arab head of state. In the two years that followed, Sadat and Begin signed the Camp David Accords (1978) and the Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty (1979). In return, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had captured during the Six-Day War in 1967, and agreed to enter negotiations over an autonomy for Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
On 11 March 1978, a PLO guerilla raid from Lebanon led to the Coastal Road Massacre. Israel responded by launching an invasion of southern Lebanon to destroy the PLO bases south of the Litani River. Most PLO fighters withdrew, but Israel was able to secure southern Lebanon until a UN force and the Lebanese army could take over. The PLO soon resumed its policy of attacks against Israel. In the next few years, the PLO infiltrated the south and kept up a sporadic shelling across the border. Israel carried out numerous retaliatory attacks by air and on the ground.
Meanwhile, Begin's government provided incentives for Israelis to settle in the occupied West Bank, increasing friction with the Palestinians in that area. The Basic Law: Jerusalem, the Capital of Israel, passed in 1980, was believed by some to reaffirm Israel's 1967 annexation of Jerusalem by government decree, and reignited international controversy over the status of the city. No Israeli legislation has defined the territory of Israel and no act specifically included East Jerusalem therein. The position of the majority of UN member states is reflected in numerous resolutions declaring that actions taken by Israel to settle its citizens in the West Bank, and impose its laws and administration on East Jerusalem, are illegal and have no validity. In 1981 Israel annexed the Golan Heights, although annexation was not recognized internationally.
Following a series of PLO attacks in 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon that year to destroy the bases from which the PLO launched attacks and missiles into northern Israel. In the first six days of fighting, the Israelis destroyed the military forces of the PLO in Lebanon and decisively defeated the Syrians. An Israeli government inquiry – the Kahan Commission – would later hold Begin, Sharon and several Israeli generals as indirectly responsible for the Sabra and Shatila massacre. In 1985, Israel responded to a Palestinian terrorist attack in Cyprus by bombing the PLO headquarters in Tunis. Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon in 1986, but maintained a borderland buffer zone in southern Lebanon until 2000.
Israel's ethnic diversity expanded in the 1980s and 1990s due to immigration. Several waves of Ethiopian Jews immigrated to Israel in the 1980s and 1990s and between 1990 and 1994, Russian immigration to Israel increased Israel's population by twelve percent.
The First Intifada, a Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule, broke out in 1987, with waves of uncoordinated demonstrations and violence occurring in the occupied West Bank and Gaza. Over the following six years, the Intifada became more organised and included economic and cultural measures aimed at disrupting the Israeli occupation. More than a thousand people were killed in the violence. Responding to continuing PLO guerilla raids into northern Israel, Israel launched another punitive raid into southern Lebanon in 1988. Amid rising tensions over the Kuwait crisis, Israeli border guards fired into a rioting Palestinian crowd near the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem. 20 people were killed and some 150 injured. During the 1991 Gulf War, the PLO supported Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Scud missile attacks against Israel. Despite public outrage, Israel heeded US calls to refrain from hitting back and did not participate in that war.
In 1992, Yitzhak Rabin became Prime Minister following an election in which his party called for compromise with Israel's neighbors. The following year, Shimon Peres on behalf of Israel, and Mahmoud Abbas for the PLO, signed the Oslo Accords, which gave the Palestinian National Authority the right to govern parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The PLO also recognized Israel's right to exist and pledged an end to terrorism. In 1994, the Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace was signed, making Jordan the second Arab country to normalize relations with Israel. Arab public support for the Accords was damaged by the continuation of Israeli settlements and checkpoints, and the deterioration of economic conditions. Israeli public support for the Accords waned as Israel was struck by Palestinian suicide attacks. Finally, while leaving a peace rally in November 1995, Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by a far-right-wing Jew who opposed the Accords.
At the end of the 1990s, Israel, under the leadership of Benjamin Netanyahu, withdrew from Hebron, and signed the Wye River Memorandum, giving greater control to the Palestinian National Authority. Ehud Barak, elected Prime Minister in 1999, began the new millennium by withdrawing forces from Southern Lebanon and conducting negotiations with Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat and U.S. President Bill Clinton at the 2000 Camp David Summit. During the summit, Barak offered a plan for the establishment of a Palestinian state, but Yasser Arafat rejected it. After the collapse of the talks and a controversial visit by Likud leader Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount, the Second Intifada began, which was allegedly pre-planned by Yasser Arafat. Sharon became prime minister in a 2001 special election. During his tenure, Sharon carried out his plan to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip and also spearheaded the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier, defeating the Intifada.
In July 2006, a Hezbollah artillery assault on Israel's northern border communities and a cross-border abduction of two Israeli soldiers precipitated the month-long Second Lebanon War. On 6 September 2007, the Israeli Air Force destroyed a nuclear reactor in Syria. In May 2008, Israel confirmed it had been discussing a peace treaty with Syria for a year, with Turkey as a go-between. However, at the end of the year, Israel entered another conflict as a ceasefire between Hamas and Israel collapsed. The Gaza War lasted three weeks and ended after Israel announced a unilateral ceasefire. Hamas announced its own ceasefire, with its own conditions of complete withdrawal and opening of border crossings. Despite neither the rocket launchings nor Israeli retaliatory strikes having completely stopped, the fragile ceasefire remained in order. In what it said was a response to more than a hundred Palestinian rocket attacks on southern Israeli cities, Israel began an operation in Gaza on 14 November 2012, lasting eight days. Israel started another operation in Gaza following an escalation of rocket attacks by Hamas in July 2014.
Israel is at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded by Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan and the West Bank to the east, and Egypt and the Gaza strip to the southwest. It lies between latitudes 29° and 34° N, and longitudes 34° and 36° E.
The sovereign territory of Israel, excluding all territories captured by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War, is approximately 20,770 square kilometers (8,019 sq mi) in area, of which two percent is water. However Israel is so narrow that the exclusive economic zone in the Mediterranean is double the land area of the country. The total area under Israeli law, including East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, is 22,072 square kilometers (8,522 sq mi), and the total area under Israeli control, including the military-controlled and partially Palestinian-governed territory of the West Bank, is 27,799 square kilometers (10,733 sq mi). Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the Negev desert in the south to the inland fertile Jezreel Valley, mountain ranges of the Galilee, Carmel and toward the Golan in the north. The Israeli Coastal Plain on the shores of the Mediterranean is home to 57 percent of the nation's population. East of the central highlands lies the Jordan Rift Valley, which forms a small part of the 6,500-kilometer (4,039 mi) Great Rift Valley.
The Jordan River runs along the Jordan Rift Valley, from Mount Hermon through the Hulah Valley and the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea, the lowest point on the surface of the Earth. Further south is the Arabah, ending with the Gulf of Eilat, part of the Red Sea. Unique to Israel and the Sinai Peninsula are makhteshim, or erosion cirques. The largest makhtesh in the world is Ramon Crater in the Negev, which measures 40 by 8 kilometers (25 by 5 mi). A report on the environmental status of the Mediterranean basin states that Israel has the largest number of plant species per square meter of all the countries in the basin.
Temperatures in Israel vary widely, especially during the winter. Coastal areas, such as those of Tel Aviv and Haifa, have a typical Mediterranean climate with cool, rainy winters and long, hot summers. The area of Beersheba and the Northern Negev has a semi-arid climate with hot summers, cool winters and fewer rainy days than the Mediterranean climate. The Southern Negev and the Arava areas have desert climate with very hot and dry summers, and mild winters with few days of rain. The highest temperature in the continent of Asia (53.7 °C or 128.7 °F) was recorded in 1942 at Tirat Zvi kibbutz in the northern Jordan river valley. At the other extreme, more mountainous regions can be windy, cold, and sometimes snowy and areas and, at elevation of 750 metres or more (with a similar elevation as Jerusalem), these areas will usually receive at least one snowfall each year.
From May to September, rain in Israel is rare. With scarce water resources, Israel has developed various water-saving technologies, including drip irrigation. Israelis also take advantage of the considerable sunlight available for solar energy, making Israel the leading nation in solar energy use per capita (practically every house uses solar panels for water heating).
Four different phytogeographic regions exist in Israel, due to the country's location between the temperate and the tropical zones, bordering the Mediterranean Sea in the west and the desert in the east. For this reason the flora and fauna of Israel is extremely diverse. There are 2,867 known species of plants found in Israel. Of these, at least 253 species are introduced and non-native. There are 380 Israeli nature reserves.
In late 2014, Israel's population was an estimated 8.2 million people, of whom 6,135,000 (74.9%) are Jews. Arab citizens of Israel comprised 20.7% of the population, while those of other origins made up 4.3%. Over the last decade, large numbers of migrant workers from Romania, Thailand, China, Africa, and South America have settled in Israel. Exact figures are unknown, as many of them are living in the country illegally, but estimates run in the region of 203,000. By June 2012, approximately 60,000 African migrants had entered Israel. About 92% of Israelis live in urban areas.
Retention of Israel's population since 1948 is about even or greater, when compared to other countries with mass immigration. Emigration from Israel (yerida) to other countries, primarily the United States and Canada, is described by demographers as modest, but is often cited by Israeli government ministries as a major threat to Israel's future.
In 2009[update], over 300,000 Israeli citizens lived in West Bank settlements such as Ma'ale Adumim and Ariel, and communities that predated the establishment of the State but were re-established after the Six-Day War, in cities such as Hebron and Gush Etzion. In 2011, there were 250,000 Jews living in East Jerusalem. 20,000 Israelis live in Golan Heights settlements. The total number of Israeli settlers is over 500,000 (6.5% of the Israeli population). Approximately 7,800 Israelis lived in settlements in the Gaza Strip, until they were evacuated by the government as part of its 2005 disengagement plan.
Israel was established as a homeland for the Jewish people and is often referred to as a Jewish state. The country's Law of Return grants all Jews and those of Jewish lineage the right to Israeli citizenship. Over three quarters, or 75.5%, of the population are Jews from a diversity of Jewish backgrounds. Around 4% of Israelis (300,000), ethnically defined as "others", are Russian-descendants of Jewish origin or family who are not Jewish according to rabbinical law, but were eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return. Approximately 73% of Israeli Jews are Israeli-born, 18.4% are immigrants from Europe and the Americas, and 8.6% are immigrants from Asia and Africa (including the Arab World). Jews from Europe and the former Soviet Union and their Israeli-born descendants, including Ashkenazi Jews, constitute approximately 50% of Jewish Israelis. Jews who left or fled Arab and Muslim countries and their descendants, including both Mizrahi and Sephardi Jews, form most of the rest of the Jewish population. Jewish intermarriage rates run at over 35% and recent studies suggest that the percentage of Israelis descended from both Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews increases by 0.5 percent every year, with over 25% of school children now originating from both communities. Template:Largest cities of Israel
Israel operates under a parliamentary system as a democratic republic with universal suffrage. A member of parliament supported by a parliamentary majority becomes the prime minister—usually this is the chair of the largest party. The prime minister is the head of government and head of the cabinet. Israel is governed by a 120-member parliament, known as the Knesset. Membership of the Knesset is based on proportional representation of political parties, with a 3.25% electoral threshold, which in practice has resulted in coalition governments.
Parliamentary elections are scheduled every four years, but unstable coalitions or a no-confidence vote by the Knesset can dissolve a government earlier. The Basic Laws of Israel function as an uncodified constitution. In 2003, the Knesset began to draft an official constitution based on these laws. The president of Israel is head of state, with limited and largely ceremonial duties.
Israel has a three-tier court system. At the lowest level are magistrate courts, situated in most cities across the country. Above them are district courts, serving both as appellate courts and courts of first instance; they are situated in five of Israel's six districts. The third and highest tier is the Supreme Court, located in Jerusalem; it serves a dual role as the highest court of appeals and the High Court of Justice. In the latter role, the Supreme Court rules as a court of first instance, allowing individuals, both citizens and non-citizens, to petition against the decisions of state authorities. Although Israel supports the goals of the International Criminal Court, it has not ratified the Rome Statute, citing concerns about the ability of the court to remain free from political impartiality.
Israel's legal system combines three legal traditions: English common law, civil law, and Jewish law. It is based on the principle of stare decisis (precedent) and is an adversarial system, where the parties in the suit bring evidence before the court. Court cases are decided by professional judges rather than juries. Marriage and divorce are under the jurisdiction of the religious courts: Jewish, Muslim, Druze, and Christian. A committee of Knesset members, Supreme Court justices, and Israeli Bar members carries out the election of judges. Administration of Israel's courts (both the "General" courts and the Labor Courts) is carried by the Administration of Courts, situated in Jerusalem. Both General and Labor courts are paperless courts: the storage of court files, as well as court decisions, are conducted electronically. Israel's Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty seeks to defend human rights and liberties in Israel.
The State of Israel is divided into six main administrative districts, known as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mahoz) – Center, Haifa, Jerusalem, North, Southern, and Tel Aviv Districts, as well as the Judea and Samaria Area in the West Bank. All of the Judea and Samaria Area and parts of the Jerusalem and North districts are not recognized internationally as part of Israel. Districts are further divided into fifteen sub-districts known as nafot (נפות; singular: nafa), which are themselves partitioned into fifty natural regions.
|North||Nazareth||Acre, Karmiel, Kiryat Shmona, Nazareth, Nazareth Illit, Qatsrin, Safed, Tiberias||1,242,100|
|Center||Ramla||Herzliya, Kfar Saba, Modi'in, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Ra'anana, Ramla, Rehovot, Rishon LeZion||1,770,200|
|Tel Aviv||Tel Aviv||Bat Yam, Bnei Brak, Givatayim, Holon, Ramat Gan, Tel Aviv||1,227,000|
|Jerusalem||Jerusalem||Jerusalem, Mevaseret Zion||910,300 (Including approximately 200,000 Israeli settlers and 208,000 Palestinians.)|
|South||Beersheba||Ashdod, Ashkelon, Beersheba, Eilat, Kiryat Gat, Sderot||1,053,600|
|Judea and Samaria (West Bank)||Ariel||Ariel, Beitar Illit, Ma'ale Adumim, Modi'in Illit||375,000 Israeli citizens|
~ 2.5 million Palestinians
For statistical purposes, the country is divided into three metropolitan areas: Tel Aviv metropolitan area (population 3,206,400), Haifa metropolitan area (population 1,021,000), and Beer Sheva metropolitan area (population 559,700). Israel's largest municipality, both in population and area, is Jerusalem with 773,800 residents in an area of 126 square kilometres (49 sq mi) (in 2009). Israeli government statistics on Jerusalem include the population and area of East Jerusalem, which is widely recognized as part of the Palestinian territories under Israeli occupation. Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Rishon LeZion rank as Israel's next most populous cities, with populations of 393,900, 265,600, and 227,600 respectively.
In 1967, as a result of the Six-Day War, Israel took control of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights. Israel also took control of the Sinai Peninsula, but returned it to Egypt as part of the 1979 Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty. Between 1982 and 2000, Israel occupied part of southern Lebanon, in what was known as the Security Zone.
Since Israel's capture of these territories, settlements (Jewish civilian communities) and military installations have been built within each of them. Israel has applied civilian law to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, incorporating them into its sovereign territory and granting their inhabitants permanent residency status and the choice to apply for citizenship. In contrast, the West Bank has remained under military occupation, and Palestinians in this area cannot become citizens. The Gaza Strip is independent of Israel with no Israeli military or civilian presence, but Israel continues to maintain control of its airspace and waters. The UN Security Council has declared the annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem to be "null and void" and continues to view the territories as occupied. The International Court of Justice, principal judicial organ of the United Nations, asserted, in its 2004 advisory opinion on the legality of the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier, that the lands captured by Israel in the Six-Day War, including East Jerusalem, are occupied territory.
The status of East Jerusalem in any future peace settlement has at times been a difficult hurdle in negotiations between Israeli governments and representatives of the Palestinians, as Israel views it as its sovereign territory, as well as part of its capital. Most negotiations relating to the territories have been on the basis of United Nations Security Council Resolution 242, which emphasises "the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war", and calls on Israel to withdraw from occupied territories in return for normalization of relations with Arab states, a principle known as "Land for peace".
The West Bank was annexed by Jordan in 1950, following the Arab rejection of the UN decision to create two states in Palestine. Only Britain recognized this annexation and Jordan has since ceded its claim to the territory to the PLO. The West Bank was occupied by Israel in 1967 during the Six-Day War. The population are mainly Palestinians, including refugees of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. From their occupation in 1967 until 1993, the Palestinians living in these territories were under Israeli military administration. Since the Israel–PLO letters of recognition, most of the Palestinian population and cities have been under the internal jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, and only partial Israeli military control, although Israel has on several occasions redeployed its troops and reinstated full military administration during periods of unrest. In response to increasing attacks as part of the Second Intifada, the Israeli government started to construct the Israeli West Bank barrier. When completed, approximately 13% of the Barrier will be constructed on the Green Line or in Israel with 87% inside the West Bank.
The Gaza Strip was occupied by Egypt from 1948 to 1967 and then by Israel after 1967. In 2005, as part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, Israel removed all of its settlers and forces from the territory. Israel does not consider the Gaza Strip to be occupied territory and declared it a "foreign territory". That view has been disputed by numerous international humanitarian organizations and various bodies of the United Nations. Following June 2007, when Hamas assumed power in the Gaza Strip, Israel tightened its control of the Gaza crossings along its border, as well as by sea and air, and prevented persons from entering and exiting the area except for isolated cases it deemed humanitarian. Gaza has a border with Egypt and an agreement between Israel, the European Union and the PA governed how border crossing would take place (it was monitored by European observers). Egypt adhered to this agreement under Mubarak and prevented access to Gaza until April 2011 when it announced it was opening its border with Gaza.
Israel maintains diplomatic relations with 157 countries and has 100 diplomatic missions around the world. Only three members of the Arab League have normalized relations with Israel: Egypt and Jordan signed peace treaties in 1979 and 1994, respectively, and Mauritania opted for full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1999. Despite the peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, Israel is still widely considered an enemy country among Egyptians. Under Israeli law, Lebanon, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Sudan, and Yemen are enemy countries and Israeli citizens may not visit them without permission from the Ministry of the Interior.
The Soviet Union and the United States were the first two countries to recognize the State of Israel, having declared recognition roughly simultaneously. The United States regards Israel as its "most reliable partner in the Middle East," based on "common democratic values, religious affinities, and security interests". The United States has provided $68 billion in military assistance and $32 billion in grants to Israel since 1967, under the Foreign Assistance Act (period beginning 1962), more than any other country for that period until 2003. Their bilateral relations are multidimensional and the United States is the principal proponent of the Arab-Israeli peace process. The United States and Israeli views differ on some issues, such as the Golan Heights, Jerusalem, and settlements.
India established full diplomatic ties with Israel in 1992 and has fostered a strong military, technological and cultural partnership with the country since then. According to an international opinion survey conducted in 2009 on behalf of the Israeli Foreign Ministry, India is the most pro-Israel country in the world. India is the largest customer of Israeli military equipment and Israel is the second-largest military partner of India after the Russian Federation. India is also the third-largest Asian economic partner of Israel and the two countries have military as well as extensive space technology ties. India became the top source market for Israel from Asia in 2010 with 41,000 tourist arrivals in that year.
Germany's strong ties with Israel include cooperation on scientific and educational endeavors and the two states remain strong economic and military partners. Under the reparations agreement, by 2007[update] Germany had paid 25 billion euros in reparations to the Israeli state and individual Israeli holocaust survivors. The UK has kept full diplomatic relations with Israel since its formation having had two visits from heads of state in 2007. Relations between the two countries were also made stronger by former prime minister Tony Blair's efforts for a two state resolution. The UK is seen as having a "natural" relationship with Israel on account of the British Mandate for Palestine. Iran had diplomatic relations with Israel under the Pahlavi dynasty but withdrew its recognition of Israel during the Islamic Revolution.
Although Turkey and Israel did not establish full diplomatic relations until 1991, Turkey has cooperated with the State since its recognition of Israel in 1949. Turkey's ties to the other Muslim-majority nations in the region have at times resulted in pressure from Arab and Muslim states to temper its relationship with Israel. Relations between Turkey and Israel took a downturn after the Gaza War and Israel's raid of the Gaza flotilla. IHH, which organized the flotilla, is a Turkish charity that has been challenged on ties to Hamas and Al-Qaeda.
Relation between Israel and Greece have improved since 1995 due to the decline of Israeli-Turkish relations. The two countries have a defense cooperation agreement and in 2010, the Israeli Air Force hosted Greece’s Hellenic Air Force in a joint exercise at the Uvda base. The joint Cyprus-Israel oil and gas explorations centered on the Leviathan gas field are also an important factor for Greece, given its strong links with Cyprus. Israel is the second largest importer of Greek products in the Middle East. In 2010, the Greek Prime minister George Papandreou made an official visit to Israel after many years, in order to improve bilateral relations between the two countries.
Israel and Cyprus have a number of bilateral agreements and many official visits have taken place between the two countries. The countries have ties on energy, agricultural, military and tourism matters. The prospects of joint exploitation of oil and gas fields off Cyprus, as well as cooperation in the world's longest sub-sea electric power cable has strengthened relations between the countries.
Azerbaijan is one of the few majority Muslim countries to develop bilateral strategic and economic relations with Israel. The relationship includes cooperation in trade and security matters and cultural and educational exchanges. Azerbaijan supplies Israel with a substantial amount of its oil needs, and Israel has helped modernize the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan. In the spring of 2012, the two countries reportedly concluded an arms deal worth $1.6 billion. In 2005, Azerbaijan was Israel's fifth largest trading partner.
In Africa, Ethiopia is Israel's main and closest ally in the continent due to common political, religious and security interests. Israel provides expertise to Ethiopia on irrigation projects and thousands of Ethiopian Jews (Beta Israel) live in Israel.
Israel is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer.
International humanitarian efforts
Israel has a history of providing emergency aid and humanitarian response teams to disasters across the world. For the past 26 years, Israel has sent out 15 aid missions to countries struck by natural disasters. In Haiti, immediately following the devastating 2010 earthquake, Israel was the first country to set up a field hospital. Israel sent over 200 medical doctors and personnel to start treating injured Haitians at the scene. At the end of its humanitarian mission, the Israeli delegation treated more than 1,110 patients, conducted 319 successful surgeries, delivered 16 births and rescued or assisted in the rescue of 4 individuals. Despite radiation concerns, Israel was one of the first countries to send a medical delegation to Japan following the devastating earthquake and tsunami disaster. Israel sent a medical team and set up a field clinic in tsunami-stricken city of Kurihara, which included a pediatric ward, surgical ward, maternity and gynecological wards and intensive care unit. Overall, medical care was given to more than 2,300 people in afflicted areas, and 220 were saved from certain death.
Israel's humanitarian efforts officially began in 1958, with the establishment of MASHAV, the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs Agency for International Development Cooperation. MASHAV has provided humanitarian aid to over 140 countries, trained thousands in capacity building skills, distributed food to poverty-stricken countries, built medical treatment facilities and provided medical training across the world. There are additional Israeli humanitarian and emergency response that are work with the Israel government, including IsraAid, The Fast Israeli Rescue and Search Team (FIRST), Israeli Flying Aid (IFA), Save a Child's Heart (SACH) and LATET.
Israel has the one of the highest ratios of defense spending to GDP of all developed countries, only topped by Oman and Saudi Arabia. The Israel Defense Forces is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, and is headed by its Chief of General Staff, the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Cabinet. The IDF consist of the army, air force and navy. It was founded during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War by consolidating paramilitary organizations—chiefly the Haganah—that preceded the establishment of the state. The IDF also draws upon the resources of the Military Intelligence Directorate (Aman), which works with the Mossad and Shabak. The Israel Defense Forces have been involved in several major wars and border conflicts in its short history, making it one of the most battle-trained armed forces in the world.
Most Israelis are drafted into the military at the age of 18. Men serve three years and women two to three years. Following mandatory service, Israeli men join the reserve forces and usually do up to several weeks of reserve duty every year until their forties. Most women are exempt from reserve duty. Arab citizens of Israel (except the Druze) and those engaged in full-time religious studies are exempt from military service, although the exemption of yeshiva students has been a source of contention in Israeli society for many years. An alternative for those who receive exemptions on various grounds is Sherut Leumi, or national service, which involves a program of service in hospitals, schools and other social welfare frameworks. As a result of its conscription program, the IDF maintains approximately 176,500 active troops and an additional 445,000 reservists.
The nation's military relies heavily on high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured in Israel as well as some foreign imports. Since 1967, the United States has been a particularly notable foreign contributor of military aid to Israel: the US is expected to provide the country with $3.15 billion per year from 2013–2018. The Arrow missile is one of the world's few operational anti-ballistic missile systems. Israel's Iron Dome anti-missile air defense system gained worldwide acclaim after intercepting hundreds of Qassam, 122 mm Grad and Fajr-5 artillery rockets fire by Palestinian militants from the Gaza Strip.
Since the Yom Kippur War, Israel has developed a network of reconnaissance satellites. The success of the Ofeq program has made Israel one of seven countries capable of launching such satellites. Since its establishment, Israel has spent a significant portion of its gross domestic product on defense. In 1984, for example, the country spent 24% of its GDP on defense. By 2006, that figure had dropped to 7.3%.
Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons as well as chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. Israel has not signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and maintains a policy of deliberate ambiguity toward its nuclear capabilities. Since the Gulf War in 1991, when Israel was attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles, all homes in Israel are required to have a reinforced security room, Merkhav Mugan, impermeable to chemical and biological substances.
Arrow 3 launch in January 2014.
Israel is considered one of the most advanced countries in Southwest Asia in economic and industrial development. Israel's quality university education and the establishment of a highly motivated and educated populace is largely responsible for spurring the country's high technology boom and rapid economic development. In 2010, it joined the OECD. The country is ranked 3rd in the region and 38th worldwide on the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index as well as in the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report. It has the second-largest number of startup companies in the world (after the United States) and the largest number of NASDAQ-listed companies outside North America.
In 2010, Israel ranked 17th among the world's most economically developed nations, according to IMD's World Competitiveness Yearbook. The Israeli economy was ranked as the world's most durable economy in the face of crises, and was also ranked first in the rate of research and development center investments.
The Bank of Israel was ranked first among central banks for its efficient functioning, up from 8th place in 2009. Israel was also ranked as the worldwide leader in its supply of skilled manpower. The Bank of Israel holds $78 billion of foreign-exchange reserves.
Despite limited natural resources, intensive development of the agricultural and industrial sectors over the past decades has made Israel largely self-sufficient in food production, apart from grains and beef. Imports to Israel, totaling $77.59 billion in 2012, include raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods. Leading exports include electronics, software, computerized systems, communications technology, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals, fruits, chemicals, military technology, and cut diamonds; in 2012, Israeli exports reached $64.74 billion.
Israel is a leading country in the development of solar energy. Israel is a global leader in water conservation and geothermal energy, and its development of cutting-edge technologies in software, communications and the life sciences have evoked comparisons with Silicon Valley. According to the OECD, Israel is also ranked 1st in the world in expenditure on Research and Development (R&D) as a percentage of GDP. Intel and Microsoft built their first overseas research and development centers in Israel, and other high-tech multi-national corporations, such as IBM, Google, Apple, HP, Cisco Systems, and Motorola, have opened R&D facilities in the country.
In July 2007, American business magnate and investor Warren Buffett's holding company Berkshire Hathaway bought an Israeli company, Iscar, its first non-U.S. acquisition, for $4 billion. Since the 1970s, Israel has received military aid from the United States, as well as economic assistance in the form of loan guarantees, which now account for roughly half of Israel's external debt. Israel has one of the lowest external debts in the developed world, and is a net lender in terms of net external debt (the total value of assets vs. liabilities in debt instruments owed abroad), which in June 2012[update] stood at a surplus of US$60 billion.
Days of working time in Israel are Sunday through Thursday (for a five-day workweek), or Friday (for a six-day workweek). In observance of Shabbat, in places where Friday is a work day and the majority of population is Jewish, Friday is a "short day", usually lasting till 14:00 in the winter, or 16:00 in the summer. Several proposals have been raised to adjust the work week with the majority of the world, and make Sunday a non-working day, while extending working time of other days, and/or replacing Friday with Sunday as a work day.
Science and technology
Israel has nine public universities that are subsidized by the state. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel's second-oldest university after the Technion, houses the National Library of Israel, the world's largest repository of Judaica and Hebraica. The Technion, the Hebrew University, and the Weizmann Institute consistently ranked among world's 100 top universities by the prestigious ARWU academic ranking. Other major universities in the country include Tel Aviv University (TAU), Bar-Ilan University, the University of Haifa, The Open University, and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. Ariel University, in the West Bank, is the newest university institution, upgraded from college status, and the first in over thirty years. Israel's seven research universities (excluding the Open University) are consistently ranked among top 500 in the world. Israel has produced six Nobel Prize-winning scientists since 2002 and has been frequently ranked as one of the countries with the highest ratios of scientific papers per capita in the world.
Israel has embraced solar energy; its engineers are on the cutting edge of solar energy technology and its solar companies work on projects around the world. Over 90% of Israeli homes use solar energy for hot water, the highest per capita in the world. According to government figures, the country saves 8% of its electricity consumption per year because of its solar energy use in heating. The high annual incident solar irradiance at its geographic latitude creates ideal conditions for what is an internationally renowned solar research and development industry in the Negev Desert.
Israel is one of the world's technological leaders in water technology. In 2011, its water technology industry was worth around $2 billion a year with annual exports of products and services in the tens of millions of dollars. The ongoing shortage of water in the country has spurred innovation in water conservation techniques, and a substantial agricultural modernization, drip irrigation, was invented in Israel. Israel is also at the technological forefront of desalination and water recycling. The Ashkelon seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant, the largest in the world, was voted 'Desalination Plant of the Year' in the Global Water Awards in 2006. Israel hosts an annual Water Technology Exhibition and Conference (WaTec) that attracts thousands of people from across the world. By the end of 2013, 85 percent of the country's water consumption will be from reverse osmosis.Template:Update after As a result of innovations in reverse osmosis technology, Israel is set to become a net exporter of water in the coming years.
Israel has led the world in stem-cell research papers per capita since 2000. In addition, Israeli universities are among 100 top world universities in mathematics (Hebrew University, TAU and Technion), physics (TAU, Hebrew University and Weizmann Institute of Science), chemistry (Technion and Weizmann Institute of Science), computer science (Weizmann Institute of Science, Technion, Hebrew University, TAU and BIU) and economics (Hebrew University and TAU).
Israel had a modern electric car infrastructure involving a countrywide network of recharging stations to facilitate the charging and exchange of car batteries. It was thought that this would have lowered Israel's oil dependency and lowered the fuel costs of hundreds of Israel's motorists that use cars powered only by electric batteries. The Israeli model was being studied by several countries and being implemented in Denmark and Australia. However, Israel's trailblazing electric car company Better Place shut down in 2013.
The Israeli Space Agency coordinates all Israeli space research programs with scientific and commercial goals. In 2012 Israel was ranked ninth in the world by the Futron's Space Competitiveness Index. Israel is one of only seven countries that both build their own satellites and launch their own launchers. The Shavit is a space launch vehicle produced by Israel to launch small satellites into low earth orbit. It was first launched in 1988, making Israel the eighth nation to have a space launch capability. Shavit rockets are launched from the spaceport at the Palmachim Airbase by the Israeli Space Agency. Since 1988 Israel Aerospace Industries have indigenously designed and built at least 13 commercial, research and spy satellites. Some of Israel's satellites are ranked among the world's most advanced space systems. In 2003, Ilan Ramon became Israel's first astronaut, serving as payload specialist of STS-107, the fatal mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia.
Israel has 18,096 kilometers (11,244 mi) of paved roads, and 2.4 million motor vehicles. The number of motor vehicles per 1,000 persons was 324, relatively low with respect to developed countries. Israel has 5,715 buses on scheduled routes, operated by several carriers, the largest of which is Egged, serving most of the country. Railways stretch across 949 kilometers (590 mi) and are operated solely by government-owned Israel Railways (All figures are for 2008). Following major investments beginning in the early to mid-1990s, the number of train passengers per year has grown from 2.5 million in 1990, to 35 million in 2008; railways are also used to transport 6.8 million tons of cargo, per year.
Israel is served by two international airports, Ben Gurion International Airport, the country's main hub for international air travel near Tel Aviv-Yafo, Ovda Airport in the south, as well as several small domestic airports. Ben Gurion, Israel's largest airport, handled over 12.1 million passengers in 2010.
On the Mediterranean coast, Haifa Port is the country's oldest and largest port, while Ashdod Port is one of the few deep water ports in the world built on the open sea. In addition to these, the smaller Port of Eilat is situated on the Red Sea, and is used mainly for trading with Far East countries.
Tourism, especially religious tourism, is an important industry in Israel, with the country's temperate climate, beaches, archaeological, other historical and biblical sites, and unique geography also drawing tourists. Israel's security problems have taken their toll on the industry, but the number of incoming tourists is on the rebound. In 2013, a record of 3.54 million tourists visited Israel with the most popular site of attraction being the Western Wall with 68% of tourists visiting there. Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world.
Israel's diverse culture stems from the diversity of the population: Jews from diaspora communities around the world have brought their cultural and religious traditions back with them, creating a melting pot of Jewish customs and beliefs. Israel is the only country in the world where life revolves around the Hebrew calendar. Work and school holidays are determined by the Jewish holidays, and the official day of rest is Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath. Israel's substantial Arab minority has also left its imprint on Israeli culture in such spheres as architecture, music, and cuisine.
Israel has two official languages, Hebrew and Arabic. Hebrew is the primary language of the state and is spoken by the majority of the population, and Arabic is spoken by the Arab minority. Many Israelis communicate reasonably well in English, as many television programs are broadcast in this language and English is taught from the early grades in elementary school. As a country of immigrants, many languages can be heard on the streets. Due to mass immigration from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia (some 130,000 Ethiopian Jews live in Israel), Russian and Amharic are widely spoken. More than one million Russian-speaking immigrants arrived in Israel from the former Soviet Union states between 1990 and 2004. French is spoken by around 700,000 Israelis, mostly originating from France and North Africa (see Maghrebi Jews).
The religious affiliation of Israeli Jews varies widely: a social survey for those over the age of 20 indicates that 55% say they are "traditional", while 20% consider themselves "secular Jews", 17% define themselves as "Religious Zionists"; 8% define themselves as "Haredi Jews". While the ultra-Orthodox, or Haredim, represented only 5% of Israel's population in 1990, they are expected to represent more than one-fifth of Israel's Jewish population by 2028.
Making up 16% of the population, Muslims constitute Israel's largest religious minority. About 2% of the population is Christian and 1.5% is Druze. The Christian population primarily comprises Palestinian Christians, but also includes post-Soviet immigrants and the Foreign Laborers of multinational origins and followers of Messianic Judaism, considered by most Christians and Jews to be a form of Christianity. Members of many other religious groups, including Buddhists and Hindus, maintain a presence in Israel, albeit in small numbers. Out of more than one million immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel, about 300,000 are considered not Jewish by the Orthodox rabbinate.
The city of Jerusalem is of special importance to Jews, Muslims and Christians as it is the home of sites that are pivotal to their religious beliefs, such as the Israeli-controlled Old City that incorporates the Western Wall and the Temple Mount, the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Other locations of religious importance in Israel are Nazareth (holy in Christianity as the site of the Annunciation of Mary), Tiberias and Safed (two of the Four Holy Cities in Judaism), the White Mosque in Ramla (holy in Islam as the shrine of the prophet Saleh), and the Church of Saint George in Lod (holy in Christianity and Islam as the tomb of Saint George or Al Khidr).
A number of other religious landmarks are located in the West Bank, among them Joseph's Tomb in Nablus, the birthplace of Jesus and Rachel's Tomb in Bethlehem, and the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron.
The administrative center of the Bahá'í Faith and the Shrine of the Báb are located at the Bahá'í World Centre in Haifa and the leader of the faith is buried in Acre. Apart from maintenance staff, there is no Bahá'í community in Israel, although it is a destination for pilgrimages. Bahá'í staff in Israel do not teach their faith to Israelis following strict policy. A few miles south of the Bahá'í World Centre is the Middle East centre of the reformist Ahmadiyya movement. It's mixed neighbourhood of Jews and Ahmadi Arabs is the only one of its kind in the country.
Israeli literature is primarily poetry and prose written in Hebrew, as part of the renaissance of Hebrew as a spoken language since the mid-19th century, although a small body of literature is published in other languages, such as English. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library of Israel at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, and other non-print media. In 2011, 86 percent of the 6,302 books transferred to the library were in Hebrew.
The Hebrew Book Week is held each June and features book fairs, public readings, and appearances by Israeli authors around the country. During the week, Israel's top literary award, the Sapir Prize, is presented.
In 1966, Shmuel Yosef Agnon shared the Nobel Prize in Literature with German Jewish author Nelly Sachs. Leading Israeli poets have been Yehuda Amichai, Nathan Alterman and Rachel Bluwstein. Internationally famous contemporary Israeli novelists include Amos Oz, Etgar Keret and David Grossman. The Israeli-Arab satirist Sayed Kashua (who writes in Hebrew) is also internationally known.
Israel has also been the home of two leading Palestinian poets and writers: Emile Habibi, whose novel The Secret Life of Saeed the Pessoptimist, and other writings, won him the Israel prize for Arabic literature; and Mahmoud Darwish, considered by many to be "the Palestinian national poet." Darwish was born and raised in northern Israel, but lived his adult life abroad after joining the Palestine Liberation Organization.
Music and dance
The nation's canonical folk songs, known as "Songs of the Land of Israel," deal with the experiences of the pioneers in building the Jewish homeland. The Hora circle dance introduced by early Jewish settlers was originally popular in the Kibbutzim and outlying communities. It became a symbol of the Zionist reconstruction and of the ability to experience joy amidst austerity. It now plays a significant role in modern Israeli folk dancing and is regularly performed at weddings and other celebrations, and in group dances throughout Israel.
Modern dance in Israel is a flourishing field, and several Israeli choreographers such as Ohad Naharin, Rami Beer, Barak Marshall and many others, are considered to be among the most versatile and original international creators working today. Famous Israeli companies include the Batsheva Dance Company and the Kibbutz Contemporary Dance Company.
Among Israel's world-renowned orchestras is the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, which has been in operation for over seventy years and today performs more than two hundred concerts each year. Israel has also produced many musicians of note, some achieving international stardom. Itzhak Perlman, Pinchas Zukerman and Ofra Haza are among the internationally acclaimed musicians born in Israel.
Israel has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest nearly every year since 1973, winning the competition three times and hosting it twice. Eilat has hosted its own international music festival, the Red Sea Jazz Festival, every summer since 1987.
Israel is home to many Palestinian musicians, including internationally acclaimed oud and violin virtuoso Taiseer Elias, singer Amal Murkus, and brothers Samir and Wissam Joubran. Israeli Arab musicians have achieved fame beyond Israel's borders: Elias and Murkus frequently play to audiences in Europe and America, and oud player Darwish Darwish (Prof. Elias's student) was awarded first prize in the all-Arab oud contest in Egypt in 2003. The Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance has an advanced degree program, headed by Taiseer Elias, in Arabic music.
Cinema and theatre
Ten Israeli films have been final nominees for Best Foreign Language Film at the Academy Awards since the establishment of Israel. The 2009 movie Ajami was the third consecutive nomination of an Israeli film. Continuing the strong theatrical traditions of the Yiddish theatre in Eastern Europe, Israel maintains a vibrant theatre scene. Founded in 1918, Habima Theatre in Tel Aviv is Israel's oldest repertory theater company and national theater. Palestinian Israeli filmmakers have made a number of films dealing with the Arab-Israel conflict and the status of Palestinians within Israel, such as Mohammed Bakri's 2002 film Jenin, Jenin and The Syrian Bride.
In 2014, Israel proper was ranked 96th of 180 according to Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index, 2nd below Kuwait (at 91) in the Middle East and North Africa region. The 2013 Freedom in the World annual survey and report by U.S.-based Freedom House, which attempts to measure the degree of democracy and political freedom in every nation, ranked Israel as the Middle East and North Africa's only free country.
The Israel Museum in Jerusalem is one of Israel's most important cultural institutions and houses the Dead Sea scrolls, along with an extensive collection of Judaica and European art. Israel's national Holocaust museum, Yad Vashem, is the world central archive of Holocaust-related information. Beth Hatefutsoth (the Diaspora Museum), on the campus of Tel Aviv University, is an interactive museum devoted to the history of Jewish communities around the world.
Apart from the major museums in large cities, there are high-quality artspaces in many towns and kibbutzim. Mishkan Le'Omanut on Kibbutz Ein Harod Meuhad is the largest art museum in the north of the country.
Several Israeli museums are devoted to Islamic culture, including the Rockefeller Museum and the L. A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art, both in Jerusalem. The Rockefeller specializes in archaeological remains from the Ottoman and other periods of Middle East history. It is also the home of the first hominid fossil skull found in Western Asia called Galilee Man. A cast of the skull is on display at the Israel Museum.
Israeli cuisine includes local dishes as well as dishes brought to the country by Jewish immigrants from the diaspora. Since the establishment of the State in 1948, and particularly since the late 1970s, an Israeli fusion cuisine has developed. Most Israeli food is kosher and cooked in accordance with the Jewish Halakha. Although most of its population is either Jewish or Muslim, pork is both produced and consumed in Israel.
Israeli cuisine has adopted, and continues to adapt, elements of various styles of Jewish cuisine, particularly the Mizrahi, Sephardic, and Ashkenazi styles of cooking, along with Moroccan Jewish, Iraqi Jewish, Ethiopian Jewish, Indian Jewish, Iranian Jewish and Yemeni Jewish influences. It incorporates many foods traditionally eaten in the Arab, Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, such as falafel, hummus, shakshouka, couscous, and za'atar, which have become common ingredients in Israeli cuisine. Schnitzel, pizza, hamburgers, French fries, rice and salad are also very common in Israel.
The Maccabiah Games, an Olympic-style event for Jewish athletes and Israeli athletes, was inaugurated in the 1930s, and has been held every four years since then. In 1964 Israel hosted and won the Asian Nations Cup; in 1970 the Israel national football team managed to qualify to the FIFA World Cup, which is still considered the biggest achievement of Israeli football.
The 1974 Asian Games held in Tehran, were the last Asian Games in which Israel participated, and was plagued by the Arab countries which refused to compete with Israel, and Israel since ceased competing in Asian competitions. Israel was excluded from the 1978 Asian Games due to security and expense involved if they were to participate. In 1994, UEFA agreed to admit Israel and all Israeli sporting organizations now compete in Europe.
The most popular spectator sports in Israel are association football and basketball. The Israeli Premier League is the country's premier football league, and the Israeli Basketball Super League is the premier basketball league. Maccabi Haifa, Maccabi Tel Aviv, Hapoel Tel Aviv and Beitar Jerusalem are the largest sports clubs. Maccabi Tel Aviv, Maccabi Haifa and Hapoel Tel Aviv have competed in the UEFA Champions League and Hapoel Tel Aviv reached the UEFA Cup quarter-finals. Maccabi Tel Aviv B.C. has won the European championship in basketball six times. Israeli tennis champion Shahar Pe'er ranked 11th in the world on 31 January 2011.
Chess is a leading sport in Israel and is enjoyed by people of all ages. There are many Israeli grandmasters and Israeli chess players have won a number of youth world championships. Israel stages an annual international championship and hosted the World Team Chess Championship in 2005. The Ministry of Education and the World Chess Federation agreed upon a project of teaching chess within Israeli schools, and it has been introduced into the curriculum of some schools. The city of Beersheba has become a national chess center, with the game being taught in the city's kindergartens. Owing partly to Soviet immigration, it is home to the largest number of chess grandmasters of any city in the world. The Israeli chess team won the silver medal at the 2008 Chess Olympiad and the bronze, coming in third among 148 teams, at the 2010 Olympiad. Israeli grandmaster Boris Gelfand won the Chess World Cup in 2009 and the 2011 Candidates Tournament for the right to challenge the world champion. He only lost the World Chess Championship 2012 to reigning world champion Anand after a speed-chess tie breaker.
Krav Maga, a martial art developed by Jewish ghetto defenders during the struggle against fascism in Europe, is used by the Israeli security forces and police. Its effectiveness and practical approach to self-defense, have won it widespread admiration and adherence round the world.
To date, Israel has won seven Olympic medals since its first win in 1992, including a gold medal in windsurfing at the 2004 Summer Olympics. Israel has won over 100 gold medals in the Paralympic Games and is ranked about 15th in the all-time medal count. The 1968 Summer Paralympics were hosted by Israel.
Israel has a school life expectancy of 15.5 years and a literacy rate of 97.1% according to the United Nations. The State Education Law, passed in 1953, established five types of schools: state secular, state religious, ultra orthodox, communal settlement schools, and Arab schools. The public secular is the largest school group, and is attended by the majority of Jewish and non-Arab pupils in Israel. Most Arabs send their children to schools where Arabic is the language of instruction.
Education is compulsory in Israel for children between the ages of three and eighteen. Schooling is divided into three tiers – primary school (grades 1–6), middle school (grades 7–9), and high school (grades 10–12) – culminating with Bagrut matriculation exams. Proficiency in core subjects such as mathematics, the Hebrew language, Hebrew and general literature, the English language, history, Biblical scripture and civics is necessary to receive a Bagrut certificate. In Arab, Christian and Druze schools, the exam on Biblical studies is replaced by an exam on Muslim, Christian or Druze heritage. Christian Arabs are one of the most educated groups in Israel. Maariv have describe the Christian Arabs sectors as "the most successful in education system", since Christian Arabs fared the best in terms of education in comparison to any other group receiving an education in Israel.
In 2003, over half of all Israeli twelfth graders earned a matriculation certificate. Israel also boasts a highly motivated and educated populace where in 2012, the country ranked third in the world in the number of academic degrees per capita (20 percent of the population). In addition, the quality of Israeli university education is very high, robust, and prestigious. As many offerings are varied, Israeli universities are considered to be of top quality, and they are inexpensive to attend. The country has nine highly regarded research universities and 49 private colleges. Despite many incentives to study domestically, interest in studying abroad is very high among Israelis, with many expressing a desire to attending Ivy League institutions in United States. Other preferred destinations include Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Eastern Europe. Israel's quality university education is largely responsible for spurring the country's high technology boom and rapid economic development over the past 60 years. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Tel Aviv University are ranked among the world's top 100 universities by Times Higher Education magazine.
- Index of Israel-related articles
- International rankings of Israel
- Outline of Israel
- State of Palestine
- 20,770 is Israel within the Green Line. 22,072 includes the annexed Golan Heights and East Jerusalem.
- The Jerusalem Law states that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel" and the city serves as the seat of the government, home to the President's residence, government offices, supreme court, and parliament. United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 (20 August 1980; 14–0, U.S. abstaining) declared the Jerusalem Law "null and void" and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from Jerusalem. The United Nations and all member nations refuse to accept the Jerusalem Law (see Kellerman 1993, p. 140) and maintain their embassies in other cities such as Tel Aviv, Ramat Gan, and Herzliya (see the CIA Factbook and Map of Israel). The U.S. Congress subsequently adopted the Jerusalem Embassy Act, which said that the U.S. embassy should be relocated to Jerusalem and that it should be recognized as the capital of Israel. However, the US Justice Department Office of Legal Counsel concluded that the provisions of the act "invade exclusive presidential authorities in the field of foreign affairs and are unconstitutional". Since passage of the act, all Presidents serving in office have determined that moving forward with the relocation would be detrimental to U.S. national security concerns and opted to issue waivers suspending any action on this front. The Palestinian Authority sees East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state. The city's final status awaits future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (see "Negotiating Jerusalem," Palestine–Israel Journal). See Positions on Jerusalem for more information.
- The majority of the international community (including the UN General Assembly, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, the International Criminal Court, and the vast majority of human rights organizations) considers Israel to be occupying Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem.
The government of Israel and some supporters have, at times, disputed this position of the international community. For more details of this terminology dispute, including with respect to the current status of the Gaza Strip, see International views on the Israeli-occupied territories and Status of territories captured by Israel.
For an explanation of the differences between an annexed but disputed territory (e.g. Tibet) and a militarily occupied territory, please see the article Military occupation.
- Charbit, Denis (2014). "Israel's Self-Restrained Secularism from the 1947 Status Quo Letter to the Present". In Berlinerblau, Jacques; Fainberg, Sarah; Nou, Aurora (eds.). Secularism on the Edge: Rethinking Church-State Relations in the United States, France, and Israel. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 167–169. ISBN 978-1-137-38115-6.
The compromise, therefore, was to choose constructive ambiguity: as surprising as it may seem, there is no law that declares Judaism the official religion of Israel. However, there is no other law that declares Israel's neutrality toward all confessions. Judaism is not recognized as the official religion of the state, and even though the Jewish, Muslim and Christian clergy receive their salaries from the state, this fact does not make Israel a neutral state. This apparent pluralism cannot dissimulate the fact that Israel displays a clear and undoubtedly hierarchical pluralism in religious matters. ... It is important to note that from a multicultural point of view, this self-restrained secularism allows Muslim law to be practiced in Israel for personal matters of the Muslim community. As surprising as it seems, if not paradoxical for a state in war, Israel is the only Western democratic country in which Sharia enjoys such an official status.
- Sharot, Stephen (2007). "Judaism in Israel: Public Religion, Neo-Traditionalism, Messianism, and Ethno-Religious Conflict". In Beckford, James A.; Demerath, Jay (eds.). The SAGE Handbook of the Sociology of Religion. London and Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. pp. 671–672. ISBN 978-1-4129-1195-5.
It is true that Jewish Israelis, and secular Israelis in particular, conceive of religion as shaped by a state-sponsored religious establishment. There is no formal state religion in Israel, but the state gives its official recognition and financial support to particular religious communities, Jewish, Islamic and Christian, whose religious authorities and courts are empowered to deal with matters of personal status and family law, such as marriage, divorce, and alimony, that are binding on all members of the communities.
- Jacoby, Tami Amanda (2005). Women in Zones of Conflict: Power and Resistance in Israel. Montreal, Quebec and Kingston, Ontario: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 9780773529939.
Although there is no official religion in Israel, there is also no clear separation between religion and state. In Israeli public life, tensions frequently arise among different streams of Judaism: Ultra-Orthodox, National-Religious, Mesorati (Conservative), Reconstructionist Progressive (Reform), and varying combinations of traditionalism and non-observance. Despite this variety in religious observances in society, Orthodox Judaism prevails institutionally over the other streams. This boundary is an historical consequence of the unique evolution of the relationship between Israel nationalism and state building. ... Since the founding period, in order to defuse religious tensions, the State of Israel has adopted what is known as the 'status quo,' an unwritten agreement stipulating that no further changes would be made in the status of religion, and that conflict between the observant and non-observant sectors would be handled circumstantially. The 'status quo' has since pertained to the legal status of both religious and secular Jews in Israel. This situation was designed to appease the religious sector, and has been upheld indefinitely through the disproportionate power of religious political parties in all subsequent coalition governments. ... On one hand, the Declaration of Independence adopted in 1948 explicitly guarantees freedom of religion. On the other, it simultaneously prevents the separation of religion and state in Israel.
- "Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Population, end of 8/2014". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "The 2008 Israel Integrated Census of Population and Housing" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 28 December 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. April 2014. Retrieved April 2014. Check date values in:
- "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- sometimes as NIS
- "Palestinian Territories". State.gov. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i "Israel". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Skolnik 2007, pp. 132–232
- "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
- "''Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel''". Knesset.gov.il. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- Galnoor, Itzhak. The Partition of Palestine: Decision Crossroads in the Zionist Movement. SUNY Press, 1995. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- Harris, J. (1998) The Israeli Declaration of Independence The Journal of the Society for Textual Reasoning, Vol. 7
- "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Brenner, Michael; Frisch, Shelley (April 2003). Zionism: A Brief History. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 184.
- "Zionist Leaders: David Ben-Gurion 1886–1973". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- The Arab-Israeli War of 1948 (US Department of State, Office of the Historian)"Arab forces joining the Palestinian Arabs in attacking territory in the former Palestinian mandate."
- Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, 2006 — Chap.8 "The Arab Regular Armies' Invasion of Palestine".
- ^ a b Gilbert 2005, p. 1
- "The status of Jerusalem" (PDF). The Question of Palestine & the United Nations. United Nations Department of Public Information.
East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory.
- BBC News (29 March 2006). "Analysis: Kadima's big plans". Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- Kessner, BC (2 April 2006). "Israel's Hard-Learned Lessons". Homeland Security Today. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Kumaraswamy, P. R. (5 June 2002). "The Legacy of Undefined Borders". Tel Aviv Notes. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- See for example:
* Hajjar, Lisa (2005). Courting Conflict: The Israeli Military Court System in the West Bank and Gaza. University of California Press. p. 96. ISBN 0520241940.
The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is the longest military occupation in modern times.
* Anderson, Perry (July–August 2001). "Editorial: Scurrying Towards Bethlehem". New Left Review. 10.
...longest official military occupation of modern history—currently entering its thirty-fifth year
* Makdisi, Saree (2010). Palestine Inside Out: An Everyday Occupation. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393338447.
...longest-lasting military occupation of the modern age
* Kretzmer, David (Spring 2012). "The law of belligerent occupation in the Supreme Court of Israel" (PDF). International Review of the Red Cross. 94 (885). doi:10.1017/S1816383112000446.
This is probably the longest occupation in modern international relations, and it holds a central place in all literature on the law of belligerent occupation since the early 1970s
* Said, Edward (2003). Culture and Resistance: Conversations with Edward W. Said. Pluto Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780745320175.
These are settlements and a military occupation that is the longest in the twentieth and twenty-first century, the longest formerly being the Japanese occupation of Korea from 1910 to 1945. So this is thirty-three years old, pushing the record.
*Alexandrowicz, Ra'anan (24 January 2012), The Justice of Occupation, The New York Times,
Israel is the only modern state that has held territories under military occupation for over four decades
* Weill, Sharon (2014). The Role of National Courts in Applying International Humanitarian Law. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780199685424.
Although the basic philosophy behind the law of military occupation is that it is a temporary situation modem occupations have well demonstrated that rien ne dure comme le provisoire A significant number of post-1945 occupations have lasted more than two decades such as the occupations of Namibia by South Africa and of East Timor by Indonesia as well as the ongoing occupations of Northern Cyprus by Turkey and of Western Sahara by Morocco. The Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, which is the longest in all occupation's history has already entered its fifth decade.
- "Monthly Bulletin of Statistics for Population" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 7 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- ^ a b "Latest Population Statistics for Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. April 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Rice, Stephanie (4 May 2009). "The Black Hebrews of Israel". GlobalPost. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- ^ a b Adriana Kemp, "Labour migration and racialisation: labour market mechanisms and labour migration control policies in Israel", Social Identities 10:2, 267–292, 2004
- "Israel". Freedom in the World. Freedom House. 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Augustus Richard Norton (2001). Civil society in the Middle East. 2 (2001). BRILL. p. 193. ISBN 90-04-10469-0.
- Rummel 1997, p. 257. "A current list of liberal democracies includes: Andorra, Argentina, ... , Cyprus, ... , Israel, ..."
- "Global Survey 2006: Middle East Progress Amid Global Gains in Freedom". Freedom House. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- ^ a b "Israel's accession to the OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Human development index (HDI)". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "WHO: Life expectancy in Israel among highest in the world". Haaretz. 24 May 2009.
- "Popular Opinion". The Palestine Post. Jerusalem. 7 December 1947. p. 1.
- "On the Move". Time. New York. 31 May 1948. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
- Levine, Robert A. (7 November 2000). "See Israel as a Jewish Nation-State, More or Less Democratic". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- Wells, John C. (1990). Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 381. ISBN 0-582-05383-8. entry "Jacob".
- "And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed." (Genesis, 32:28, 35:10). See also Hosea 12:5.
- Exodus 6:16–20
- Barton & Bowden 2004, p. 126. "The Merneptah Stele ... is arguably the oldest evidence outside the Bible for the existence of Israel as early as the 13th century BCE."
- "And the Lord thy God will bring thee into the land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it; and he will do thee good, and multiply thee above thy fathers." (Deuteronomy 30:5).
- "But if ye return unto me, and keep my commandments and do them, though your dispersed were in the uttermost part of the heaven, yet will I gather them from thence, and will bring them unto the place that I have chosen to cause my name to dwell there." (Nehemiah 1:9).
- "Walking the Bible Timeline". Walking the Bible. Public Broadcast Television. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
- Friedland & Hecht 2000, p. 8. "For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts."
- Ben-Sasson 1985
- Matthews, Victor H. (2002). A Brief History of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-664-22436-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
- Stager in Coogan 1998, p. 91.[Full citation needed]
- Dever 2003, p. 206.Template:Title?
- Miller 1986, pp. 78–9.Template:Title?
- McNutt 1999, p. 35.Template:Title?
- McNutt 1999, p. 70.Template:Title?
- Miller 2005, p. 98.Template:Title?
- McNutt 1999, p. 72.Template:Title?
- Miller 2005, p. 99.Template:Title?
- Miller 2005, p. 105.Template:Title?
- Lehman in Vaughn 1992, pp. 156–62.[Full citation needed]
- Gnuse 1997, pp.28,31Template:Title?
- http://www.utexas.edu/courses/classicalarch/readings/sennprism.html column 2 line 61 to column 3 line 49
- "British Museum - Cuneiform tablet with part of the Babylonian Chronicle (605-594 BC)". Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- See http://www.livius.org/cg-cm/chronicles/abc5/jerusalem.html reverse side, line 12.
- Judaism in late antiquity, Jacob Neusner, Bertold Spuler, Hady R Idris, BRILL, 2001, p. 155
- Oppenheimer, A'haron and Oppenheimer, Nili. Between Rome and Babylon: Studies in Jewish Leadership and Society. Mohr Siebeck, 2005, p. 2.
- Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (1996). Atlas of Jewish History. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-415-08800-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lehmann, Clayton Miles (18 January 2007). "Palestine". Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Morçöl 2006, p. 304
- The Abuhav Synagogue, Jewish Virtual Library.
- ^ a b c d Gil, Moshe (1997). A History of Palestine, 634–1099. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-59984-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- ^ a b Kramer, Gudrun (2008). A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel. Princeton University Press. p. 376. ISBN 978-0-691-11897-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Allan D. Cooper (2009). The geography of genocide. University Press of America. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-7618-4097-8. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Katz, Shmuel. Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine. Taylor Productions Ltd., 1974 (ISBN 0-929093-13-5), pg. 97
- Carmel, Alex. The History of Haifa Under Turkish Rule. Haifa: Pardes, 2002 (ISBN 965-7171-05-9), pp. 16-17
- Sefer HaCharedim Mitzvat Tshuva Chapter 3. Maimonides established a yearly holiday for himself and his sons, 6 Cheshvan, commemorating the day he went up to pray on the Temple Mount, and another, 9 Cheshvan, commemorating the day he merited to pray at the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron.
- Abraham P. Bloch (1987). "Sultan Saladin Opens Jerusalem to Jews". One a day: an anthology of Jewish historical anniversaries for every day of the year. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-88125-108-1. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Benzion Dinur (1974). "From Bar Kochba's Revolt to the Turkish Conquest". In David Ben-Gurion (ed.). The Jews in their Land. Aldus Books. p. 217. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Geoffrey Hindley (28 February 2007). Saladin: hero of Islam. Pen & Sword Military. p. xiii. ISBN 978-1-84415-499-9. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Alex Carmel; Peter Schäfer; Yossi Ben-Artzi (1990). The Jewish settlement in Palestine, 634-1881. L. Reichert. p. 31. ISBN 978-3-88226-479-1. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- Samson ben Abraham of Sens, Jewish Encyclopedia.
- Moshe Lichtman (September 2006). Eretz Yisrael in the Parshah: The Centrality of the Land of Israel in the Torah. Devora Publishing. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-932687-70-5. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- M. Sharon (2010). "Al Khalil". Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. Koninklijke Brill NV.
- International Dictionary of Historic Places: Middle East and Africa by Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, pp. 336–339
- Dan Bahat (1976). Twenty centuries of Jewish life in the Holy Land: the forgotten generations. Israel Economist. p. 48. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Fannie Fern Andrews (February 1976). The Holy Land under mandate. Hyperion Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-88355-304-6. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "The Covenant of the League of Nations". Article 22. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Mandate for Palestine," Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 11, p. 862, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1972
- Rosenzweig 1997, p. 1 "Zionism, the urge of the Jewish people to return to Palestine, is almost as ancient as the Jewish diaspora itself. Some Talmudic statements ... Almost a millennium later, the poet and philosopher Yehuda Halevi ... In the 19th century ..."
- ^ a b Geoffrey Wigoder, G.G. (ed.). "Return to Zion". The New Encyclopedia of Judaism (via Answers.Com). The Jerusalem Publishing House. Retrieved 8 March 2010.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "An invention called 'the Jewish people'". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- Gilbert 2005, p. 2. "Jews sought a new homeland here after their expulsions from Spain (1492) ..."
- Eisen, Yosef (2004). Miraculous journey: a complete history of the Jewish people from creation to the present. Targum Press. p. 700. ISBN 1-56871-323-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Morgenstern, Arie (2006). Hastening redemption: Messianism and the resettlement of the land of Israel. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-19-530578-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Jewish and Non-Jewish Population of Palestine-Israel (1517–2004)". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 March 2010. Cite journal requires
- Barnai, Jacob (1992). The Jews in Palestine in the Eighteenth Century: Under the Patronage of the Istanbul committee of Officials for Palestine. University Alabama Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-8173-0572-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- The Jewish State, by Theodore Herzl, (Courier Corporation, 27 Apr 2012), page 157
- ^ a b c d "Immigration to Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 March 2012. The source provides information on the First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Aliyot in their respective articles. The White Paper leading to Aliyah Bet is discussed "Aliyah During World War II and its Aftermath".
- Kornberg 1993 "How did Theodor Herzl, an assimilated German nationalist in the 1880s, suddenly in the 1890s become the founder of Zionism?"
- Herzl 1946, p. 11
- "Chapter One: The Heralders of Zionism". Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved 12 July 2007. Cite journal requires
- Stein 2003, p. 88. "As with the First Aliyah, most Second Aliyah migrants were non-Zionist orthodox Jews ..."
- Romano 2003, p. 30
- Macintyre, Donald (26 May 2005). "The birth of modern Israel: A scrap of paper that changed history". The Independent. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Yapp, M.E. (1987). The Making of the Modern Near East 1792–1923. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 290. ISBN 0-582-49380-3.
- Schechtman, Joseph B. (2007). "Jewish Legion". Encyclopaedia Judaica. 11. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. p. 304. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Scharfstein 1996, p. 269. "During the First and Second Aliyot, there were many Arab attacks against Jewish settlements ... In 1920, Hashomer was disbanded and Haganah ("The Defense") was established."
- "League of Nations: The Mandate for Palestine, July 24, 1922". Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. 24 July 1922. Retrieved 27 August 2007.
- Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
- "Report to the League of Nations on Palestine and Transjordan, 1937". British Government. 1937. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- Hughes, M. (2009) The banality of brutality: British armed forces and the repression of the Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936–39, English Historical Review Vol. CXXIV No. 507, 314–354.
- Khalidi, Walid (1987). From Haven to Conquest: Readings in Zionism and the Palestine Problem Until 1948. Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 978-0-88728-155-6
- "The Population of Palestine Prior to 1948". MidEastWeb. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- Fraser 2004, p. 27
- Hoffman, Bruce (1999). Inside Terrorism. Columbia University Press. pp. 48–52.
- "A/RES/106 (S-1)". General Assembly resolution. United Nations. 15 May 1947. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "A/364". Special Committee on Palestine. United Nations. 3 September 1947. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Background Paper No. 47 (ST/DPI/SER.A/47)". United Nations. 20 April 1949. Retrieved 31 July 2007. Cite journal requires
- "A/RES/181(II) of 29 November 1947". United Nations. 1947. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- Benny Morris (2008). 1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war. Yale University Press. pp. 66, 67, 72. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
p.66, at 1946 "The League demanded independence for Palestine as a “unitary” state, with an Arab majority and minority rights for the Jews." ; p.67, at 1947 "The League’s Political Committee met in Sofar, Lebanon, on 16–19 September, and urged the Palestine Arabs to fight partition, which it called “aggression,” “without mercy.” The League promised them, in line with Bludan, assistance “in manpower, money and equipment” should the United Nations endorse partition." ; p. 72, at Dec 1947 "The League vowed, in very general language, “to try to stymie the partition plan and prevent the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine
- Bregman 2002, pp. 40–41
- Gelber, Yoav (2006). Palestine 1948. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-902210-67-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Tal, David (2003). War in Palestine, 1948: Israeli and Arab Strategy and Diplomacy. Routledge. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-7146-5275-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Morris, Benny (2008). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-15112-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948.
- Clifford, Clark, "Counsel to the President: A Memoir", 1991, p. 20.
- Jacobs, Frank (7 August 2012). "The Elephant in the Map Room". Borderlines. The New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "The Kibbutz & Moshav: History & Overview". Jewish Virtual Library. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- Karsh, Efraim (2002). The Arab–Israeli conflict: The Palestine War 1948. Osprey Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-84176-372-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ben-Sasson 1985, p. 1058
- Morris, 2008, p. 205Template:Title?
- Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
- David Tal (24 June 2004). War in Palestine, 1948: Israeli and Arab Strategy and Diplomacy. Routledge. p. 469. ISBN 978-1-135-77513-1.
some of the Arab armies invaded Palestine in order to prevent the establishment of a Jewish state, Transjordan...
- Benny Morris (1 April 2009). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Press. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-300-15112-1.
The Arab war aim, in both stages of the hostilities, was, at a minimum, to abort the emergence of a Jewish state or to destroy it at inception. The Arab states hoped to accomplish this by conquering all or large parts of the territory allotted to the Jews by the United Nations. And some Arab leaders spoke of driving the Jews into the sea19 and ridding Palestine “of the Zionist plague.”20 The struggle, as the Arabs saw it, was about the fate of Palestine/ the Land of Israel, all of it, not over this or that part of the country. But, in public, official Arab spokesmen often said that the aim of the May 1948 invasion was to “save” Palestine or “save the Palestinians,” definitions more agreeable to Western ears.
- Benny Morris (1 April 2009). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-300-15112-1.
A week before the armies marched, Azzam told Kirkbride: “It does not matter how many [ Jews] there are. We will sweep them into the sea.” ... Ahmed Shukeiry, one of Haj Amin al-Husseini’s aides (and, later, the founding chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization), simply described the aim as “the elimination of the Jewish state.” ...al-Quwwatli told his people: “Our army has entered ... we shall win and we shall eradicate Zionism)
- Benny Morris (1 April 2009). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-300-15112-1.
the Jews felt that the Arabs aimed to reenact the Holocaust and that they faced certain personal and collective slaughter should they lose
- "PDF copy of Cablegram from the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States to the Secretary-General of the United Nations: S/745: 15 May 1948". Un.org. 9 September 2002. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- Karsh, Efraim (2002). The Arab–Israeli conflict: The Palestine War 1948. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-372-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Morris, Benny. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. p. 602. ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Two Hundred and Seventh Plenary Meeting". The United Nations. 11 May 1949. Retrieved 13 July 2007. Cite journal requires
- Lustick 1988, pp. 37–39
- "Israel (Labor Zionism)". Country Studies. Library of Congress. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Segev, Tom. 1949: The First Israelis. "The First Million". Trans. Arlen N. Weinstein. New York: The Free Press, 1986. Print. p 105-107
- ^ a b "Population, by Religion and Population Group" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2006. Retrieved 7 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- Shulewitz, Malka Hillel (2001). The Forgotten Millions: The Modern Jewish Exodus from Arab Lands. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-4764-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bard, Mitchell (2003). The Founding of the State of Israel. Greenhaven Press. p. 15.
- Laskier, Michael "Egyptian Jewry under the Nasser Regime, 1956–70" pages 573–619 from Middle Eastern Studies, Volume 31, Issue # 3, July 1995 page 579.
- Hakohen, Devorah (2003). Immigrants in Turmoil: Mass Immigration to Israel and Its Repercussions in the 1950s and After. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-2969-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link); for ma'abarot population, see p. 269.
- Shindler 2002, pp. 49–50
- Gilbert 2005, p. 58
- Schoenherr, Steven (15 December 2005). "The Suez Crisis". Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
- Benny Morris (25 May 2011). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1998. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 300, 301. ISBN 978-0-307-78805-4.
(p. 300) In exchange (for Israeli withdrawal) the United states had indirectly promised to guarantee Israel's right of passage through the straits (to the Red sea) and its right to self defense if the Egyptian closed them....(p 301) The 1956 war resulted in a significant reduction of...Israeli border tension. Egypt refrained from reactivating the Fedaeen, and...Egypt and Jordan made great effort to curb infiltration
- "National insurance institute of Israel, Hostile Action Casualties" (in Hebrew).
list of people who were kiled in hostile action: 53 In 1956,19 in 1957, 15 in 1958
- "jewish virtual library, Terrorism Against Israel: Number of Fatalities".
53 at 1956, 19 at 1957, 15 at 1958
- "Jewish virtual library,MYTH "Israel's military strike in 1956 was unprovoked."".
Israeli Ambassador to the UN Abba Eban explained ... As a result of these actions of Egyptian hostility within Israel, 364 Israelis were wounded and 101 killed. In 1956 alone, as a result of this aspect of Egyptian aggression, 28 Israelis were killed and 127 wounded.
- Segev 2007, pp. 155-157
- Massad, Joseph. "Zionism's Internal Others: Israel and the Oriental Jews." Journal of Palestine Studies 25.4 (1996): 53-68. PDF. p 59-64
- "Adolf Eichmann". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 18 September 2007. Cite journal requires
- Cole 2003, p. 27. "... the Eichmann trial, which did so much to raise public awareness of the Holocaust ..."
- Shlomo Shpiro (2006). "No place to hide: Intelligence and civil liberties in Israel". Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 19 (44): 629–648.
- "The Politics of Miscalculation in the Middle East", by Richard B. Parker (1993 Indiana University Press) pp. 38
- Maoz, Moshe (1995). Syria and Israel: From War to Peacemaking. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-19-828018-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "On This Day 5 Jun". BBC. 5 June 1967. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Segev 2007, p. 178
- Segev 2007, p. 289
- Smith 2006, p. 126. "Nasser, the Egyptian president, decided to mass troops in the Sinai ... casus belli by Israel."
- Bennet, James (13 March 2005). "The Interregnum". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 11 February 2010.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs – The Palestinian National Covenant- July 1968". Mfa.gov.il. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- Silke, Andrew (2004). Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures. Routledge. p. 149 (256 pages). ISBN 978-0-7146-8273-0. Retrieved 8 March 2010.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Gilbert, Martin (2002). The Routledge Atlas of the Arab–Israeli Conflict: The Complete History of the Struggle and the Efforts to Resolve It. Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-415-28116-4. Retrieved 8 March 2010.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Andrews, Edmund; Kifner, John (27 January 2008). "George Habash, Palestinian Terrorism Tactician, Dies at 82". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "1973: Arab states attack Israeli forces". On This Day. The BBC. 6 October 1973. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- "Agranat Commission". Knesset. 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2010. Cite journal requires
- Bregman 2002, pp. 169–170 "In hindsight we can say that 1977 was a turning point ..."
- Bregman 2002, pp. 171–174
- Bregman 2002, pp. 186–187
- Bregman 2002, pp. 186
- Cleveland, William L. (1999). A history of the modern Middle East. Westview Press. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-8133-3489-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lustick, Ian (1997). "Has Israel Annexed East Jerusalem?" (PDF). Middle East Policy. Washington, D.C.: Wiley-Blackwell. V (1): 34–45. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4967.1997.tb00247.x. ISSN 1061-1924. OCLC 4651987544. Retrieved 1 June 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- See for example UN General Assembly resolution 63/30, passed 163 for, 6 against "Resolution adopted by the General Assembly". 23 January 2009.
- ^ a b BBC News. Regions and territories: The Golan Heights.
- Bregman 2002, p. 199
- Friedberg, Rachel M. (November 2001). "The Impact of Mass Migration on the Israeli Labor Market" (PDF). The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 116 (4): 1373. doi:10.1162/003355301753265606.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Tessler, Mark A. (1994). A History of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 677. ISBN 978-0-253-20873-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Stone & Zenner 1994, p. 246. "Toward the end of 1991 ... were the result of internal Palestinian terror."
- Haberman, Clyde (9 December 1991). "After 4 Years, Intifada Still Smolders". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 March 2008.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mowlana, Gerbner & Schiller 1992, p. 111
- Bregman 2002, p. 236
- "From the End of the Cold War to 2001". Boston College. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "The Oslo Accords, 1993". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 30 March 2010. Cite journal requires
- "Israel-PLO Recognition – Exchange of Letters between PM Rabin and Chairman Arafat – Sept 9- 1993". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 31 March 2010. Cite journal requires
- Harkavy & Neuman 2001, p. 270. "Even though Jordan in 1994 became the second country, after Egypt to sign a peace treaty with Israel ..."
- "Sources of Population Growth: Total Israeli Population and Settler Population, 1991–2003". Settlements information. Foundation for Middle East Peace. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
- Cleveland, William L. (1999). A history of the modern Middle East. Westview Press. p. 494. ISBN 978-0-8133-3489-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Israel marks Rabin assassination". BBC News. 12 November 2005.
- Bregman 2002, p. 257
- "The Wye River Memorandum". U.S. Department of State. 23 October 1998. Retrieved 30 March 2010. Cite journal requires
- Gelvin 2005, p. 240
- Khaled Abu Toameh. "How the war began". Retrieved 29 March 2006.
- Ain, Stewart (20 December 2000). "PA: Intifada Was Planned". The Jewish Week. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
- Samuels, David (1 September 2005). "In a Ruined Country". The Atlantic. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "West Bank barrier route disputed, Israeli missile kills 2". USA Today. 29 July 2004. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Harel, Amos; Issacharoff, Avi (1 October 2010). "Years of rage". Haaretz. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- King, Laura (28 September 2004). "Losing Faith in the Intifada". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Diehl, Jackson (27 September 2004). "From Jenin To Fallujah?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Amidror, Yaakov. "Winning Counterinsurgency War: The Israeli Experience" (PDF). Strategic Perspectives. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Pipes, Daniel (14 September 2008). "Must Counterinsurgency Wars Fail?". The Washington Times. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Frisch, Hillel (12 January 2009). "The Need for a Decisive Israeli Victory Over Hamas". Perspectives Papers on Current Affairs. Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Buchris, Ofek (9 March 2006). "The "Defensive Shield" Operation as a Turning Point in Israel's National Security Strategy". Strategy Research Project. United States Army War College. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Krauthammer, Charles (18 June 2004). "Israel's Intifada Victory". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Plocker, Sever (22 June 2008). "2nd Intifada forgotten". Ynetnews. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Ya'alon, Moshe (January 2007). "Lessons from the Palestinian 'War' against Israel" (PDF). Policy Focus. Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Hendel, Yoaz (20 September 2010). "Letting the IDF win". Ynetnews. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Zvi Shtauber; Yiftah Shapir (2006). The Middle East strategic balance, 2004–2005. Sussex Academic Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-84519-108-5. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Security Council Calls for End to Hostilities between Hizbollah, Israel, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1701 (2006)". United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701. 11 August 2006.
Escalation of hostilities in Lebanon and in Israel since Hizbollah's attack on Israel on 12 July 2006
- Harel, Amos (13 July 2006). "Hezbollah kills 8 soldiers, kidnaps two in offensive on northern border". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
- Koutsoukis, Jason (5 January 2009). "Battleground Gaza: Israeli ground forces invade the strip". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 January 2009.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ravid, Barak (18 January 2009). "IDF begins Gaza troop withdrawal, hours after ending 3-week offensive". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Azoulay, Yuval (1 January 2009). "Two IDF soldiers, civilian lightly hurt as Gaza mortars hit Negev". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Lappin, Yaakov; Lazaroff, Tovah (12 November 2012). "Gaza groups pound Israel with over 100 rockets". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Stephanie Nebehay (20 November 2012). "UN rights boss, Red Cross urge Israel, Hamas to spare civilians". Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- al-Mughrabi, Nidal (24 November 2012). "Hamas leader defiant as Israel eases Gaza curbs". Reuters. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "Israel and Hamas Trade Attacks as Tension Rises". The New York Times. 8 July 2014.
- Cohen, Gili (9 January 2012). "Israel Navy to devote majority of missile boats to secure offshore drilling rafts". Haaretz.
- "Area of Districts, Sub-Districts, Natural Regions and Lakes". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "Israel (Geography)". Country Studies. Library of Congress. 7 May 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "Geographic Regions". Retrieved 14 January 2008.
- "Issue #130 November 2011 - Regions in Israel".
- "After 20 Years: A Taphonomic Re-evaluation of Nahal Hadera V, an Epipalaeolithic Site on the Israeli Coastal Plain" (PDF).
- "The Living Dead Sea". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1 April 1999. ISBN 0-8264-0406-5. Retrieved 20 July 2007. Cite journal requires
- Makhteshim Country. UNESCO. ISBN 954-642-135-9. Retrieved 19 September 2007.
- Jacobs 1998, p. 284[dead link]. "The extraordinary Makhtesh Ramon – the largest natural crater in the world ..."
- "Makhtesh Ramon". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 12 February 2010. Cite journal requires
- Rinat, Zafrir (29 May 2008). "More endangered than rain forests?". Haaretz. Tel Aviv. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Watzman, Haim (8 February 1997). "Left for dead". New Scientist. London. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Goldreich 2003, p. 85
- "Average Weather for Tel Aviv-Yafo". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 11 July 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Average Weather for Jerusalem". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 11 July 2007. Cite journal requires
- Sitton, Dov (20 September 2003). "Development of Limited Water Resources- Historical and Technological Aspects". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 November 2007. Cite journal requires
- ^ a b Grossman, Gershon; Ayalon, Ofira; Baron, Yifaat; Kauffman, Debby. "Solar energy for the production of heat Summary and recommendations of the 4th assembly of the energy forum at SNI". Samuel Neaman Institute for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Flora of Israel Online". Flora.huji.ac.il. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "National Parks and Nature Reserves, Israel". Israel Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Yaakov Levi. "Israel Population end of 2014 Now 8.2 Million - Are Jewish" (PDF). Israel National News. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "ISRAEL: Crackdown on illegal migrants and visa violators". IRIN. 14 July 2009.
- "Israel rounds up African migrants for deportation". Reuters. 11 June 2012.
- "THE LAND: Urban Life". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
- DellaPergola, Sergio (2000) . Still Moving: Recent Jewish Migration in Comparative Perspective, Daniel J. Elazar and Morton Weinfeld eds. (ed.). 'The Global Context of Migration to Israel'. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. pp. 13–60. ISBN 1-56000-428-2.CS1 maint: extra text: editors list (link) CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Herman, Pini (1 September 1983). "The Myth of the Israeli Expatriate". Moment Magazine. 8 (8): 62–63.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Gould, Eric D.; Moav, Omer (2007). "Israel's Brain Drain". Israel Economic Review. Bank of Israel. 5 (1): 1–22. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Rettig Gur, Haviv (6 April 2008). "Officials to US to bring Israelis home". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Settlements in the West Bank". Settlement Information. Foundation for Middle East Peace. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "President Obama's hostility to Israel continues". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Settlements in the Gaza Strip". Settlement Information. Foundation for Middle East Peace. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
- "The Law of Return". Knesset. Retrieved 14 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- DellaPergola, Sergio (2011). "Jewish Demographic Policies" (PDF). The Jewish People Policy Institute.
- "Israel (people)". Encyclopedia.com. 2007.
- Yoram Ettinger (5 April 2013). "Defying demographic projections". Israel Hayom. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- "Jews, by Continent of Origin, Continent of Birth and Period of Immigration". Statistical Abstract of Israel. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Aharoni, Ada. "The Forced Migration of Jews From Arab Countries and Peace". Historical Society of Jews From Egypt. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "From Sephardi to Mizrahi and Back Again: Changing Meanings of "Sephardi" in Its Social Environments".
- "The myth of the Mizrahim". The Guardian. London. 3 April 2009.
- Shields, Jacqueline. "Jewish Refugees from Arab Countries". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Missing Mizrahim".
- Okun, Barbara S.; Khait-Marelly, Orna (2006). "Socioeconomic Status and Demographic Behavior of Adult Multiethnics: Jews in Israel" (PDF). Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- ^ a b "Field Listing — Executive Branch". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 19 June 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2007.
- In 1996, direct elections for prime minister were inaugurated, but the system was declared unsatisfactory and the old one reinstated. See "Israel's election process explained". BBC News. 23 January 2003. Retrieved 31 March 2010. Cite journal requires
- "The Electoral System in Israel". The Knesset. Retrieved 8 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- Mazie 2006, p. 34
- ^ a b "The Judiciary: The Court System". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1 August 2005. Retrieved 5 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Israel's high court unique in region". Boston Herald. 9 September 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Israel and the International Criminal Court". Office of the Legal Adviser to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 30 June 2002. Retrieved 20 July 2007. Cite journal requires
- "The State — Judiciary — The Court System". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1 October 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Introduction to the Tables: Geophysical Characteristics" (doc). Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 4 September 2007. Cite journal requires
- Sherwood, Harriet (26 July 2012). "Population of Jewish settlements in West Bank up 15,000 in a year". The Guardian. London.
- "Palestinians grow by a million in decade". The Jerusalem Post/AP. 9 February 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
- "Comprehensive Settlement Population 1972-2010". Foundation for Middle East Peace. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "The Jewish Demographic Bomb: Judea and Samaria Up 4.3% in 2013".
- "Localities, Population, and Density" (PDF). Retrieved 30 January 2010.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- ^ a b "Population of localities numbering above 2,000 residents and other rural population" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010. Cite journal requires
- Roberts 1990, p. 60 Although East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights have been brought directly under Israeli law, by acts that amount to annexation, both of these areas continue to be viewed by the international community as occupied, and their status as regards the applicability of international rules is in most respects identical to that of the West Bank and Gaza.
- Bard, Mitchell. "Israel Makes Peace With Egypt". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Resolution 497 (1981)". United Nations. 1981. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "East Jerusalem: UNSC Res. 478". UN. 1980. Retrieved 10 April 2010. Cite journal requires
- "Arabs will ask U.N. to seek razing of Israeli wall". NBCNews.com. 9 July 2004. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Olmert: Willing to trade land for peace". Ynetnews. 16 December 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Syria ready to discuss land for peace". The Jerusalem Post. 12 June 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Egypt: Israel must accept the land-for-peace formula". The Jerusalem Post. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "UNRWA in Figures: Figures as of 30 June 2009" (PDF). United Nations. June 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Questions and Answers". Israel’s Security Fence. The State of Israel. 22 February 2004. Retrieved 17 April 2007.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld | West Bank Barrier Route Projections, July 2008". Unhcr.org. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Under the Guise of Security: Routing the Separation Barrier to Enable Israeli Settlement Expansion in the West Bank". Publications. B'Tselem. December 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Situation Report on the Humanitarian Situation in the Gaza Strip". Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 23 January 2009.
- "The occupied Palestinian territories: Dignity Denied". International Committee of the Red Cross. 13 December 2007.
- "Israel/Palestine". Human Rights Watch. 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "Human Rights in Palestine and Other Occupied Arab Territories: Report of the United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Council. 15 September 2009. p. 85.
- "Israel/Occupied Territories: Road to nowhere". Amnesty International. 1 December 2006.
- ^ a b "The scope of Israeli control in the Gaza Strip". B'Tselem. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Agreed documents on movement and access from and to Gaza". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 15 November 2005. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad: Status of Relations". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 12 July 2006. Retrieved 13 March 2009. Cite journal requires
- "Massive Israel protests hit universities" (Egyptian Mail, 16 March 2010) "According to most Egyptians, almost 31 years after a peace treaty was signed between Egypt and Israel, having normal ties between the two countries is still a potent accusation and Israel is largely considered to be an enemy country"
- "Initial Periodic Report of the State of Israel Concerning the Implementation of the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC)" (PDF). Israel Ministry of Justice. February 2001: 147 (173 using pdf numbering). Retrieved 9 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- הוראות הדין הישראלי (in Hebrew). Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2004. Retrieved 9 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "U.S. Relations With Israel Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs Fact Sheet March 10, 2014". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Israel: Background and Relations with the United States Updated" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Retrieved 19 October 2009. Cite journal requires
- ^ a b "U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants" (PDF).
- "U.S. Government Foreign Grants and Credits by Type and Country: 2000 to 2010" (PDF).
- "Foreign Aid".
- Addis, Casey L. (14 February 2011). "Israel: Background and U.S. Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Kumar, Dinesh. "India and Israel: Dawn of a New Era" (PDF). Jerusalem Institute for Western Defense. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- Eichner, Itamar (4 March 2009). "From India with love". Ynetnews. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Nitin Gadkari to visit Israel tomorrow". World Snap. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "India to hold wide-ranging strategic talks with US, Israel". The Times of India. 19 January 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Overview of India-Israel Bilateral Trade and Economic Relations".[dead link]
- Koshy, Ninan. "India and Israel Eye Iran". Foreign Policy In Focus. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "India to launch Israel-backed satellite". CNN. 21 March 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
- "India replaces Korea as top Asian market for Israel".
- "Germany and Israel". Background Papers. German Embassy. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Boyes, Roger (17 March 2008). "Israel welcomes new Germany to a celebration of its 60th birthday". The Times. London. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Congressional Research Service: Germany's Relations with Israel: Background and Implications for German Middle East Policy, Jan 19, 2007. (page CRS-2)" (PDF). Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "The bilateral relationship". UK in Israel. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Abadi 2004, pp. 37–39, 47
- Abadi 2004, pp. 47–49
- India-Israel Commercial Relations[dead link]
- Abadi 2004, p. 3. "However, it was not until 1991 that the two countries established full diplomatic relations."
- Abadi 2004, pp. 4–6
- Colum Lynch (30 May 2010). "Turkey urges U.N. Security Council to condemn Israeli attack on aid flotilla". Washington Post. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
- ^ a b "Qatar, Mauritania cut Israel ties". Al Jazeera English. 17 January 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Israel Navy commandos: Gaza flotilla activists tried to lynch us". Haaretz. 31 May 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- AP (7 April 2010). "Israeli Officials Claim Aid Flotilla Had Ties to Al Qaeda, PM Gives Military 'Full Support'". Fox News. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- Lavie, Mark; Laub, Karin; Hacaoglu, Selcan (2 June 2010). "Israel tries to limit diplomatic damage from raid". The Washington Times. Jerusalem. Associated Press. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Pfeffer, Anshel (6 June 2010). "IDF: Five Gaza flotilla activists linked to Hamas, Al-Qaida". Haaretz. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Israel woos Greece after rift with Turkey". BBC News. 16 October 2010.
- "Turkey, Greece discuss exploration off Cyprus". Haaretz. Associated Press. 26 September 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Nomikos, John M.; Michaletos, Ioannis. "An Outline of Greek-Israeli Strategic Relations". Research Institute for European and American Studies. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "PM Netanyahu welcomes Greek PM Papandreou". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 22 July 2010.
- "The Cyprus connection". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
- "Netanyahu embarks on historic visit to Cyprus". Ynet. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
- "Netanyahu headed to Cyprus to boost cooperation on security, offshore drilling". Haaretz. 19 January 2012.
- "Foreign minister expected to visit Azerbaijan". JPost. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Cagaptay, Soner; Murinson, Alexander (30 March 2005). "Good Relations between Azerbaijan and Israel: A Model for Other Muslim States in Eurasia?". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- Bourtman, Ilya. "Israel and Azerbaijan's Furtive Embrace". The Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved Summer 2006. Check date values in:
- Abilov, Shamkhal (2009). "The Azerbaijan-Israel Relations: A Non-Diplomatic, But Strategic Partnership" (PDF). OAKA. International Strategic Research Organization. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Iran and Israel in Africa: A search for allies in a hostile world". The Economist. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Abn, Abi (14 January 2009). "Bolivia rompe relaciones diplomáticas con Israel y anuncia demanda por genocidio en Gaza" (in Spanish). YVKE Mundial Radio. Retrieved 14 April 2010. Cite journal requires
- "Israel's humanitarian aid efforts". Mfa.gov.il. 22 March 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Dr. Besser Assists in Haitian Baby's Birth | Video". Abcnews.go.com. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "International Aid to Haiti: Who's Giving". Cbsnews.com. 14 January 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "Israeli Aid arrives in Haiti". Mfa.gov.il. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "Israeli Aid Delegation leaves for Japan". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "Israel sends aid to Japan". Mfa.gov.il. 26 March 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Israel seeks to aid Africa". Forward.com. 29 September 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "Israel and International Aid". Mfa.gov.il. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Israeli Humanitarian Aid organizations". Mfa.gov.il. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- Fleurant, Dr Aude-Emmanuelle; Perlo-Freeman, Samuel; Kelly, Noel (27 June 2014). "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "History: 1948". Israel Defense Forces. 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2007. Cite journal requires
- Henderson 2003, p. 97
- "The State: Israel Defense Forces (IDF)". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 13 March 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Israel Defense Forces". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 16 September 2007.
- "The Israel Defense Forces". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 21 October 2006. Cite journal requires
- Stendel 1997, pp. 191–192
- Shtrasler, Nehemia (16 May 2007). "Cool law, for wrong population". Haaretz. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Sherut Leumi (National Service)". Nefesh B'Nefesh. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Israel" (PDF). Middle East Military Balance. Tel Aviv: Institute for National Security Studies. 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "U.S. Aid To Israel". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- Erlanger, Steven (17 August 2007). "Israel to Get $30 Billion in Military Aid From U.S". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Katz, Yaakov (30 March 2007). "'Arrow can fully protect against Iran'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Robert Johnson (19 November 2012). "How Israel Developed Such A Shockingly Effective Rocket Defense System". Business Insider. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Sarah Tory (19 November 2012). "A Missile-Defense System That Actually Works?". Slate. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Zorn, E. L. (8 May 2007). "Israel's Quest for Satellite Intelligence". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- Katz, Yaakov (11 June 2007). "Analysis: Eyes in the sky". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Seitz, Charmaine (30 January 2001). "Israel's Defense Budget: The Business Side of War". The Jerusalem Fund. Retrieved 16 September 2007. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help) (first appeared in Information Brief No. 64)
- ElBaradei, Mohamed (27 July 2004). "Transcript of the Director General's Interview with Al-Ahram News". International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Assessing the Risks" (PDF). Office of Technology Assessment. August 1993. pp. 65, 84. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "Background Information". 2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). United Nations. 27 May 2005. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Ziv, Guy, "To Disclose or Not to Disclose: The Impact of Nuclear Ambiguity on Israeli Security," Israel Studies Forum, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Winter 2007): 76–94
- "Glossary". Israel Homeowner. Retrieved 20 March 2012.[dead link]
- Share this Email Twitter FacebookRankCountryScore. "Rankings & Results « Vision of Humanity". Visionofhumanity.org. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Israel becomes world's 4th largest arms exporter, defense officials say Associated Press, Published: 12.11.07
- Israel reveals more than $7 billion in arms sales, but few names By Gili Cohen | 9 January 2014, Haaretz
- "Popeye Turbo". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- Israeli Mirage III and Nesher Aces, By Shlomo Aloni, (Osprey 2004), page 60
- Israel is world's largest drone exporter The Guardian, Harriet Sherwood in Jerusalem, Monday 20 May 2013
- Spike Anti-Tank Missile, Israel army-technology.com
- ^ a b c David Adler (10 March 2014). "Ambitious Israeli students look to top institutions abroad". ICEF. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "List of OECD Member countries — Ratification of the Convention on the OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Economy Rankings". Ease of Doing Business. World Bank. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012. World Economic Forum. 2011. ISBN 978-92-95044-74-6. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
- "NASDAQ Appoints Asaf Homossany as New Director for Israel". NASDAQ OMX Group. 6 February 2005. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- ^ a b "'Israel's economy most durable in face of crises', Ynet 20 May 2010". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Data Template on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity – Reporting Countries". Imf.org. 5 January 2001. Retrieved 8 July 2010.
- "Israeli exports: From $6M to $80B". Ynetnews. 13 May 2011.
- "New Economy: Silicon Wadi". Wired. 16 April 1998. Retrieved 2 February 2008.
- ^ a b c Parry, Tom (15 August 2007). "Looking to the sun". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.[dead link]
- ^ a b c Gradstein, Linda (22 October 2007). "Israel Pushes Solar Energy Technology". NPR.
- Ginsburg, Mitch (28 May 2007). "A Hotter Holy Land". The Jerusalem Report. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Israel keen on IT tie-ups". Business Line. Chennai, India. 10 January 2001. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Israel's technology industry: Punching above its weight". The Economist. 10 November 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "OECD Factbook 2010: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics". Oecd-ilibrary.org. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- Krawitz, Avi (27 February 2007). "Intel to expand Jerusalem R&D". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Microsoft Israel R&D center: Leadership". Microsoft. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
Avi returned to Israel in 1991, and established the first Microsoft R&D Center outside the US ...
- "Berkshire Announces Acquisition". New York Times. 6 May 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Israel's International Investment Position (IIP), June 2012". Bank of Israel. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Koren, Orah (26 June 2012). "Instead of 4 work days: 6 optional days to be considered half day-outs". The Marker. Retrieved 26 June 2012. (in Hebrew)
- ^ a b Shetreet, Ida Ben; Woolf, Laura L. (2010). "Education" (PDF). Publications Department. Ministry of Immigrant Absorption. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "Higher Education in Israel". Embassy of Israel In India. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- Paraszczuk, Joanna (17 July 2012). "Ariel gets university status, despite opposition". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- "About Technion". Technion. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- "Israel". Monash University. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- "History of the Library". National Library of Israel. Retrieved 22 August 2014. Cite journal requires
- "Technion-Israel Institute of Technology - World Top 500 Universities". Academic Ranking of World Universities. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- "The Hebrew University of Jerusalem - World Top 500 Universities". Academic Ranking of World Universities. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- "Weizmann Institute of Science - World Top 500 Universities". Academic Ranking of World Universities. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- "Israel". Academic Ranking of World Universities. 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2012.[dead link]
- ^ a b "Prof. Ada Yonath awarded 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2010. Cite journal requires
- ^ a b "Iowa State, Ames Laboratory, Technion scientist wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry". Iowa State University. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Heylin, Michael (27 November 2006). "Globalization of Science Rolls On" (PDF). Chemical & Engineering News. American Chemical Society: 29–31. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- Gordon, Evelyn (24 August 2006). "Kicking the global oil habit". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Yarden Skop. "Israel's scientific fall from grace: Study shows drastic decline in publications per capita". Haaretz.
- Lettice, John (25 January 2008). "Giant solar plants in Negev could power Israel's future". The Register.
- ^ a b Sandler, Neal (26 March 2008). "At the Zenith of Solar Energy". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Del Chiaro, Bernadette; Telleen-Lawton, Timothy. "Solar Water Heating: How California Can Reduce Its Dependence on Natural Gas" (PDF). Environment California. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Berner, Joachim (January 2008). "Solar, what else?!" (PDF). Sun & Wind Energy. Israel Special. p. 88. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- Fiske, Gavriel (9 October 2013). "Tiny Israel a Nobel heavyweight, especially in chemistry". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "What You Israelis Have Done With Water Tech is Simply Amazing". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- "Ashkelon, Israel". water-technology.net.
- Rabinovitch, Ari (6 December 2011). "Desalination plant could make Israel water exporter". Reuters. Jerusalem.
- Stafford, Ned (21 March 2006). "Stem cell density highest in Israel". The Scientist. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities". Academic Ranking of World Universities. 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Will Israel's Electric Cars Change the World?". Time. 26 April 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Electric cars are all the rage in Israel". FT. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Israel to keep electric car recharging fees low". Haaretz. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Baby you can drive my electric car". Jpost. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Electric Car Company Folds After Taking $850 Million From GE And Others". Business Insider. 26 May 2013.
- "Futron Releases 2012 Space Competitiveness Index". Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- "Space launch systems - Shavit". Deagel. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- O'Sullivan, Arieh (9 July 2012). "Israel's domestic satellite industry saved". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
The Amos 6 will be IAI's 14th satellite
- Tran, Mark (21 January 2008). "Israel launches new satellite to spy on Iran". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Roads(1)(2), By Length and Area" (PDF). Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2010. Cite journal requires
- ^ a b "2008 – 2.4 Million motor vehicles in Israel". Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2010. Cite journal requires
- "Bus Services on Scheduled Routes" (PDF). Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2010. Cite journal requires
- ^ a b "Israeli Railway Services" (PDF). Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2010. Cite journal requires
- ^ a b c "Transportation in Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. 1 November 2001. ISBN 0-08-043448-7. Retrieved 5 February 2010. Cite journal requires
- "Official airport statistics for Ben Gurion Airport". IAA. 25 May 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Burstein, Nathan (14 August 2007). "Tourist visits above pre-war level". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Yifa Yaakov (10 January 2014). "2013 'record year' for tourism, government says". Times of Israel. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- Ziv Reinstein (10 January 2014). "2013: Record year for incoming tourism". Ynetnews. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Interesting Facts About Israel". Jewish Federation of the North Shore. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Asian Studies: Israel as a 'Melting Pot'". National Research University Higher School of Economics. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- "Jewish Festivals and Days of Remembrance in Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 16 September 2007. Cite journal requires
- Ran, Ami (25 August 1998). "Encounters: The Vernacular Paradox of Israeli Architecture". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 6 September 2007. Cite journal requires
- Brinn, David (23 October 2005). "Israeli, Palestinian and Jordanian DJs create bridge for peace". ISRAEL21c. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "The International Israeli Table". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 26 June 2009. Cite journal requires
- Israel Central Bureau of Statistics: The Ethiopian Community in Israel
- "Israel may admit 3,000 Ethiopia migrants if Jews". Reuters. 16 July 2009.
- Meyer, Bill (17 August 2008). "Israel's welcome for Ethiopian Jews wears thin". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "Study: Soviet immigrants outperform Israeli students". Haaretz. 10 February 2008.
- "French radio station RFI makes aliyah". Ynetnews. 5 December 2011.
- Template:Cite Catholic Encyclopedia
- Elazar, Daniel J. "Religion in Israel: A Consensus for Jewish Tradition". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 6 September 2007. Cite journal requires
- "The other Israeli conflict: with itself". The Christian Science Monitor. 9 July 2010.
- "At the edge of the abyss". Haaretz. 24 November 2009.
- Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Israel. "Population, by religion and population group" (PDF). Retrieved 6 August 2007.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bassok, Moti (25 December 2006). "Israel's Christian population numbers 148,000 as of Christmas Eve". Haaretz. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "National Population Estimates" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics: 27. Retrieved 6 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Israel's disputatious Avigdor Lieberman: Can the coalition hold together?". The Economist. 11 March 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Levine, Lee I. (1999). Jerusalem: its sanctity and centrality to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 516. ISBN 978-0-8264-1024-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hebrew Phrasebook. Lonely Planet Publications. 1 November 1999. p. 156. ISBN 0-86442-528-7.
- "The Bahá'í World Centre: Focal Point for a Global Community". The Bahá'í International Community. Retrieved 2 July 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Teaching the Faith in Israel". Bahá'í Library Online. 23 June 1995. Retrieved 6 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Kababir and Central Carmel – Multiculturalism on the Carmel". Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Visit Haifa". Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Amos Oz is most translated Israeli author". Ynetnews. 10 February 2009.
- "Depositing Books to The Jewish National & University Library". Jewish National and University Library. Retrieved 21 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- Fink-Shamit, Noa; Shveiky, Rivka. "Statistics for 2011". Israeli Book Statistics. National Library of Israel. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 12 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Palestinian 'national poet' dies". BBC News. 9 August 2008.
- Broughton, Ellingham & Trillo 1999, pp. 365–369
- "Israel". World Music. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 20 March 2012.[dead link]
- The Cambridge Dictionary of Judaism and Jewish Culture, (Cambridge University Press 2011), edited by Judith R. Baskin, Judith Reesa Baskin, page 125
- "Israeli Folk Music". World Music. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 20 March 2012.[dead link]
- Ben-Sasson 1985, p. 1095
- Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
- Davis, Barry (5 February 2007). "Israel Philharmonic Orchestra celebrates 70th anniversary". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (from Israel21c). Retrieved 13 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Israel". Eurovision Song Contest. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "History". Eurovision Song Contest. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "About the Red Sea Jazz Festival". Red Sea Jazz Festival. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Brown, Hannah (2 February 2010). "'Ajami' nominated for Oscar". Jerusalem Post.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- התיאטרון הלאומי הבימה (in Hebrew). Habima National Theatre. Retrieved 13 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Press Freedom Index 2014". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Keinon, Herb (21 January 2013). "US watchdog: Israel is Mideast's only 'free' state". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- ^ a b "About the Museum". The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved 13 March 2013. Cite journal requires
- "Shrine of the Book". The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved 13 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "About Yad Vashem". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Museum Information". Beth Hatefutsoth. Retrieved 13 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- TravelNet in cooperation with Israel museums. "Mishkan LeOmanut, Ein Harod". Ilmuseums.com. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- Rast, Walter E. (1992). Through the Ages in Palestinian Archaeology: An Introductory Handbook. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 50. ISBN 9781563380556. "Galilee man" (lowercase "m") in this source is a typo – ref. Solo Man, Peking Man and so forth.
- "The Israel Museum Permanent Exhibitions: Archaeology Wing – The Dawn of Civilization". New York: The Ridgefield Foundation. 1995. Skull (cast) Zuttiyeh Cave Lower Palaeolithic. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Montague, James (27 February 2008). "Time is right for Israel to return to its Asian roots". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- "Israel Barred from Asian Games". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 26 July 1976. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- Torstrick 2004, p. 141
- "Basketball Super League Profile". Winner Basketball Super League. Retrieved 13 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Maccabi Electra Tel Aviv - Welcome to EUROLEAGUE BASKETBALL". Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Pawn stars shine in new 'national sport'". Haaretz. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- "Chess In Schools in Israel – A progress report". FIDE. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- "Ashdod schools to incorporate chess into curriculum". Haaretz. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- "Israel is introducing chess to the school curriculum". FIDE. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- Bekerman, Eitan (4 September 2006). "Chess masters set to blitz Rishon Letzion". Haaretz.
- "World Team Championship in Beer Sheva, Israel". World Chess Federation. 1 November 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2009. Cite journal requires
- Tzahor, Uri (26 November 2008). "Israel takes silver medal in Chess Olympiad". Ynetnews.
- Shvidler, Eli (15 December 2009). "Israeli grand master Boris Gelfand wins Chess World Cup". Haaretz.
- "Israel". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Tel Aviv 1968". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Global Education Digest 2011" (PDF). UNESCO Institute for Statistics. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 2011. p. 223. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Human Development Report 2009" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Israeli Schools: Religious and Secular Problems". Education Resources Information Center. 10 October 1984. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Kashti, Or; Ilan, Shahar (18 July 2007). "Knesset raises school dropout age to 18". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Summary of the Principal Laws Related to Education". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 26 January 2003. Retrieved 4 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- "The Israeli Matriculation Certificate". United States-Israel Educational Foundation via the University of Szeged University Library. January 1996. Retrieved 5 August 2007. Cite journal requires
- ^ a b "המגזר הערבי נוצרי הכי מצליח במערכת החינוך)". Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Christians in Israel: Strong in education". ynet. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Pupils in Grade XII, matriculation examinees and entitled to a certificate" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2 July 2007. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Top Ten Reasons to Invest in Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Israel: IT Workforce". Information Technology Landscape in Nations Around the World. American University. Retrieved 14 August 2007.[dead link]
- "Two Israeli universities named among world's best". The Jerusalem Post. 15 March 2012.
- Abadi, Jacob (2004). Israel's Quest for Recognition and Acceptance in Asia: Garrison State Diplomacy. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-5576-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Barton, John; Bowden, Julie (2004). The Original Story: God, Israel and the World. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-2900-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ben-Sasson, Hayim (1985). A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-39731-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bregman, Ahron (2002). A History of Israel. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-67631-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Broughton, Simon; Ellingham, Mark; Trillo, Richard (1999). World Music: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-635-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Cole, Tim (2003). Holocaust City: The Making of a Jewish Ghetto. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92968-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Fraser, T. G. (2004). The Arab-Israeli Conflict. Palgrave Macmillan Limited. ISBN 9781403913388. Retrieved 12 May 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Friedland, Roger; Hecht, Richard (2000). To Rule Jerusalem. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22092-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Gelvin, James L. (2005). The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85289-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Gilbert, Martin (2005). The Routledge Atlas Of The Arab–Israeli conflict (8th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35900-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Goldreich, Yair (2003). The Climate of Israel: Observation, Research and Application. Springer. ISBN 0-306-47445-X.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Harkavy, Robert E.; Neuman, Stephanie G. (2001). Warfare and the Third World. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-24012-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Henderson, Robert D'A. (2003). Brassey's International Intelligence Yearbook (2003 ed.). Brassey's Inc. ISBN 1-57488-550-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Herzl, Theodor (1946). The Jewish State. American Zionist Emergency Council. ISBN 0-486-25849-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Jacobs, Daniel (1998). Israel and the Palestinian Territories: The Rough Guide (2nd revised ed.). Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-248-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Kellerman, Aharon (1993). Society and Settlement: Jewish Land of Israel in the Twentieth Century. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1295-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Kornberg, Jacques (1993). Theodor Herzl: From Assimilation to Zionism. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33203-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (