# Help:Wiki markup

A video about WikiCode and how to use it.

Wiki markup is the syntax and keywords used by the MediaWiki software to format a page. To learn how to see this markup and to save an edit, see How to edit a page.

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## Format

### Text formatting

What it looks like What you type

You can italicize text by putting 2 apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will bold the text.

5 apostrophes will bold and italicize the text.

You can also display text with small caps, but you have to use a template.

A semicolon at the start of a line bolds the entire line.

Sometimes, it functions as a section header (see above).

You can ''italicize text'' by putting 2 apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will '''bold the text'''.

5 apostrophes will '''''bold and italicize the text'''''.

You can also display text with {{Smallcaps|small caps}},
but you have to use a [[Help:Template|template]].

;A semicolon at the start of a line bolds the entire line.
Sometimes, it functions as a section header
(see [[Help:Wiki markup#Sections|above]]).


Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has a colored background and more stringent formatting. Suppose we want to define int main():

#include <iostream>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
std::cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;
}

Computer code has a colored background and more stringent formatting.
Suppose we want to define <code>int  main()</code>:

<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp">#include <iostream>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
std::cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;
}</syntaxhighlight>


You can use small text for captions.

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.


Better stay away from big text, unless it's within small text.

Better stay away from <big>big text</big>,
unless <small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.


You can include a non-breaking space (sometimes called non-printing character) where you require two words to always appear together on the same line, such as Mr. Smith or 400 km/h using &nbsp; in place of a regular space between the two "words" that need to behave as a single word (never be separated on different lines).

Mr.&nbsp;Smith or 400&nbsp;km/h.

Extra spacing within text can best be achieved using the pad template:

Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.


Typewriter font (does also work beyond the end of a paragraph):
arrow →

New paragraph started here.

<tt>arrow      &rarr;</tt>

<tt>''italics''</tt>

New paragraph </tt>started here.

### Special characters

#### Diacritical marks

What it looks like What you type

À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc;  &Atilde; &Auml;   &Aring;
&AElig;  &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc;  &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc;  &Iuml;   &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc;  &Otilde; &Ouml;   &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc;  &Uuml;   &szlig;  &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc;  &atilde; &auml;   &aring;  &aelig;  &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc;  &euml;   &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc;  &iuml;   &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig;  &otilde; &ouml;   &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc;  &uuml;   &yuml;


#### Punctuation

What it looks like What you type

¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”

&iquest; &iexcl;  &sect;  &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull;  &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo;  &rsquo;  &ldquo; &rdquo;


#### Other punctuation

The ‹pre› and ‹nowiki› markup tags are also available. (Permits [ { & } ] for example.)

#### Commercial symbols

What it looks like What you type

™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤

&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;


#### Subscripts and superscripts

• The Manual of Style prefers the x<sub>1</sub> format.
• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.
Description What it looks like What you type

Subscripts

x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;
x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;


Superscripts

x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or
x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;
x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;


Combined

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.
1 hectare = 1 E4 m²

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times;
10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]


#### Greek characters

What it looks like What you type

α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ
Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ
Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ
Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta;    &gamma;   &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta;   &theta;   &iota;    &kappa; &lambda;  &mu; &nu;
&xi;    &omicron; &pi;      &rho;   &sigma;   &sigmaf;
&tau;   &upsilon; &phi;     &chi;   &psi;     &omega;
&Alpha; &Beta;    &Gamma;   &Delta; &Epsilon; &Zeta;
&Eta;   &Theta;   &Iota;    &Kappa; &Lambda;  &Mu;
&Nu;    &Xi;      &Omicron; &Pi;    &Rho;     &Sigma;
&Tau;   &Upsilon; &Phi;     &Chi;   &Psi;     &Omega;


#### Mathematical characters

What it looks like What you type

∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔

&int;   &sum;    &prod;   &radic;  &minus;   &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop;   &equiv;  &ne;     &le;      &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part;   &prime;   &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg;    &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin;  &notin;  &cap;    &cup;    &sub;     &sup;    &sube; &supe;
&not;   &and;    &or;     &exist;  &forall;
&rArr;  &lArr;   &dArr;   &uArr;   &hArr;
&rarr;  &darr;   &uarr;   &larr;   &harr;


#### Mathematical formulae

• The <math> tag typesets using LaTeX markup, which may render as an image or as HTML, depending on environmental settings. The <math> tag is best for the complex formula on its own line in an image format. If you use this tag to put a formula in the line with text, put it in the {{nowrap}} template.
• The {{math}} template uses HTML, and will size-match a serif font, and will also prevent line-wrap. All templates are sensitive to the "=" sign, so remember to replace = with {{=}} in template input. Use wikitext '' and ''' inside the {{{1}}} template, as well other HTML entities. The {{math}} template is best for typeset formulas in line with the text.
What it looks like (in comparison) What you type (in comparison)

${\displaystyle 2x\times 4y\div 6z+8-{\frac {y}{z^{2}}}=0}$
2x × 4y ÷ 6z + 8 − y⁄z2 = 0

${\displaystyle \sin 2\pi x+\ln e\,\!}$
${\displaystyle \sin 2\pi x+\ln e}$
sin 2πx + ln e

<math> 2x \times 4y \div 6z + 8 - \frac {y}{z^2} = 0 </math>
{{math| 2x &times; 4y &divide; 6z + 8 &minus; {{Fraction|y|z<sup>2</sup>}} {{=}} 0}}

<math>\sin 2\pi x + \ln e\,\!</math>
<math>\sin 2\pi x + \ln e</math>
{{math|sin 2&pi;''x'' + ln ''e''}}


#### Spacing in simple math formulae

• Using &nbsp; to prevent linebreak is not needed; the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <br> if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.
What it looks like What you type

It follows that x2 ≥ 0 is true when x is a real number.

It follows that {{math|''x''<sup>2</sup> &ge; 0}} is true when {{math|<VAR>x</VAR>}} is a real number.


#### Complicated formulae

• See Help:Displaying a formula for how to use <math>.
• A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character.
What it looks like What you type
${\displaystyle \sum _{n=0}^{\infty }{\frac {x^{n}}{n!}}}$
: <math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>


In Wikipedia and some other wikis, free links are used in Wikitext markup to produce internal links between pages, as opposed to the concept of CamelCase for the same purpose, which was used in the early days of Wikipedia, see CamelCase and Wikipedia.

In Wikipedia's markup language, you create free links by putting double square brackets around text designating the title of the page you want to link to. Thus, [[Texas]] will be rendered as Texas. Optionally, you can use a vertical bar (|) to customize the link title. For example, typing [[Texas|Lone Star state]] will produce Lone Star state, a link that is displayed as "Lone Star state" but in fact links to Texas.

#### Link to another wiki article

• Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
• Thus the link below is to the URL en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Canonicalization.
• A red link is a page that doesn't exist yet; it can be created by clicking on the link.
• A link to its own page will appear only as bold text.
What it looks like What you type

London has public transport.

London has [[public transport]].

Link to this own article: "Help:Wiki markup" will appear only as bold text.

Link to this own article: "[[Help:Wiki markup]]" will appear only as bold text.

• Same target, different name.
• The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text to be displayed second.
What it looks like What you type

New York also has public transportation.

New York also has [[public transport|public transportation]].

• Simply typing the pipe character (|) after a link will automatically rename the link in certain circumstances. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page.
• See Pipe trick for details.
Description What it looks like What you type

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses.

[[kingdom (biology)|]].

Automatically hide namespace.

[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]].

Or both.

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings)|]]

But this doesn't work for section links.

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]

• Endings are blended into the link.
• Exception: a trailing apostrophe (') and any characters following the apostrophe are not blended.
• Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
• Blending can be suppressed by using <nowiki></nowiki> tags, which may be desirable in some instances.
Description What it looks like What you type

Blending active.

San Francisco also has public transportation. Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.

San Francisco also has [[public transport]]ation. Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxicab]]s, and [[tram]]s.

Blending suppressed.

A micro-second.

A [[micro-]]<nowiki></nowiki>second

#### Link to a section of a page

• The part after the number sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation. Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the top of the page.
• Include "| link title" to create a stylish (piped) link title.
• If sections have the same title, add a number to link to any but the first. #Example section 3 goes to the third section named "Example section". You can use the pipe and retype the section title to display the text without the # symbol.
What it looks like What you type

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics is a link to a section within another page.

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics]] is a link to a section within another page.

#Links and URLs is a link to another section on the current page. Links and URLs is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

[[#Links and URLs]] is a link to another section on the current page. [[#Links and URLs|Links and URLs]] is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

Italics is a piped link to a section within another page.

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics]] is a piped link to a section within another page.

• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• For more information, see starting an article and check out Wikipedia's naming conventions.
• Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
Description What it looks like What you type

Links to pages that don’t exist yet look red.

The article about cardboard sandwiches doesn't exist yet.

The article about [[cardboard sandwiches]] doesn't exist yet.

### Redirects

• Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.
Description What you type

Redirect to an article.

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

Redirect to a section.

#REDIRECT [[United States#History]]

What it looks like What you type

See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

See the [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].

• To link to a page on the same subject in another language, use the form: [[language code:Title]].
• It is recommended interlanguage links be placed at the very end of the article.
• Interlanguage links are not visible within the formatted article but, instead, appear as language links on the sidebar (to the left) under the menu section "languages".
• Please see Interlanguage links and the Complete list of language wikis available.

Description What you type

Link to the German version of "Plankton".
"de" is the language-code for "Deutsch" (the German language).

[[de:Plankton]]

Other examples.

 [[de:Plankton]] [[es:Plancton]] [[ru:Планктон]] [[simple:Plankton]] 

Description What it looks like What you type

Linking to a page on another wiki in English.
All of these forms lead to the URL http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Hello

Without prefix.

[[Wiktionary:Hello]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|Wiktionary definition of 'Hello']]

Linking to a page on another wiki in another language.
All of these forms lead to the URL http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/bonjour

Without prefix.

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]

### Categories

• To put an article in a category, place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, placing these links at the end of the edit box is recommended.
• To link to a category page without putting the article into the category, use a colon prefix (":Category") in the link.
Description What it looks like What you type

Categorize an article.

[[Category:Character sets]]

[[:Category:Character sets]]
[[:Category:Character sets|]]