Hadith of the ten promised paradise
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The prophet Muhammad, in a Hadith accepted by Sunni Muslims, specified ten of his companions who were promised paradise. Those companions named in this Hadith are referred to by Sunnis as The Ten Promised Paradise (Arabic: العشرة المبشرون بالجنة; al-`Ashara al-Mubasharîn bi-l-Janna). The authenticity of this Hadith is rejected by Shia Muslims.
gs Based on the narration, Sunnis have listed ten people whom they believe were promised paradise while living. The list is written in the order in which the Islamic prophet Muhammad said them. The first four of them are known by Sunnis as the Righteously Guided Caliphs.
|Names||Arabic names||Birth B.H.||Death A.H.||Birth C.E.||Death C.E.|
|Abu Bakr||أبو بكر||c. 51||13||c. 570||634|
|Umar||عمر بن الخطّاب||40||23||584||644|
|Uthman ibn Affan||عثمان بن عفّان||c. 45||35||c. 579||656|
|Ali||علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب||c. 24||40||c. 599||661|
|Talhah||طلحة بن عبيد الله||c. 27||36||c. 597||656|
|Zubayr ibn al-Awam||الزبير بن العوّام||30||36||594||656|
|Abdur Rahman bin Awf||عبد الرحمن بن عوف||?||c. 31||?||c. 652|
|Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas||سعد بن أبي وقّاص||29||44||595||664|
|Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah||أبو عبيدة بن الجراح||40||18||584||640|
|Saeed bin Zaid||سعيد بن زيد||c. 30||51||c. 594||673|
Narrated Sa'id ibn Zayd:
AbdurRahman ibn al-Akhnas said that when he was in the mosque, a man mentioned Ali (may Allah be pleased with him). So Sa'id ibn Zayd got up and said: I bear witness to the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) that I heard him say: Ten persons will go to Paradise: The Prophet (peace be upon him) will go to Paradise, AbuBakr will go to Paradise, Umar will go to Paradise, Uthman will go to Paradise, Ali will go to Paradise, Talhah will go to Paradise: az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam will go to paradise, Sa'd ibn Malik will go to Paradise, and AbdurRahman ibn Awf will go to Paradise. If I wish, I can mention the tenth. The People asked: Who is he: So he kept silence. The again asked: Who is he: He replied: He is Sa'id ibn Zayd.— Collected by Abu Dawood, Sunan Abu Dawood
Abdul Rahman bin `Awf said: The prophet (s) said: Abu Bakr in Paradise, Omar in Paradise, 'Uthman in Paradise, Ali in Paradise, Talha in Paradise, al- Zubair (bin al-'Awwam) in Paradise, AbdulRahman bin `Awf in Paradise, Saad (bin Abi Waqqass) in Paradise, Saeed (bin Zaid), and abu 'Ubaida bin al- Jarrah in Paradise."— Tirmidhi
Muslims put different weight on this Hadith, the majority, the Sunnis, viewing it as very favourable.
The Sunni canon of Hadith, called the Six major Hadith collections, includes: Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawood, Al-Sunan al-Sughra, Sunan al-Tirmidhi and Sunan ibn Majah. Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim are considered the most reliable of these collections.
Sunnis say that prophet Muhammad's companions were sorted into twelve groups and of these the ten promised paradise were ranked first.
Shia Muslims do not believe in the concept and have concluded that the idea is built on Hadith that were fabricated during Umayyad reign, forged for political reasons to elevate the adversaries of the Shia Imam, Ali, and the Ahl al-Bayt. They also note that Ali is put together with nine other Sahaba who never supported him in his conflicts: Talha and Zubair were generals in the armies against him in the Battle of the Camel and Umar and Abu Bakr were in opposition to Ali during the succession to prophet Muhammad. In contrast, companions like Ammar ibn Yasir, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and Malik al-Ashtar, who staunchly defended Ali, are not included in the list.
Shia mention that the Hadith was not even included in neither Sahih Bukhari nor Sahih Muslim, implying that not even the top Sunni scholars could consider it completely authentic.
The idea of promised heaven itself is vague in nature as Muhammad himself always maintained that he was a human being himself and whatever he narrated was related to him by Allah. As such Muhammad is recorded as weeping and asking forgiveness from the Almighty in the middle of the night. So attributing him to ordain heaven for his followers is unthinkable, when he himself understood that he would be judged on his merits. As such if ever a list as the Heavenly Ordained would exist, then it surely would have been incorporated in the Holy Quran. But its absence is noteworthy.
Shias often raise the differences in narration of certain hadith found in Sunni collections as a legitimate reason to disavow their authenticity. Sunnis have argued that slight differences in the narration of a hadith do not dismantle its credibility. Most Hadith have more than one version which tend to be more trustworthy, as the ones with only a single narration are usually found only transmitted through a single isnad. Also, when one considers the fact that these ten were not always on the same side, in some cases fought each other, went to war against each other and killed each other, it becomes logically difficult to resolve.
- Kitaabul Imaan, The Book of Islamic Faith, 1996, prepared by Majlisul Ulama of South Africa, pub. By Idara Isha’at-e-Diniyat, New Delhi, page 62; Abu Da’wud, Sunan Abu Da’wud, Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi, Cairo, 1310 AH/1952 CE; Abu Da’wud, Sunan Abu Da’wud, Sh. Muhammad ashraf, Lahore, 1984.
- Sunnan Abu Dawud, 40:4632
- Tirmidhi, Hadith 3747
- Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah, pg. 160 Dar al-Ma’aarif edition; al-Tirmithi, under #3748; al-Tirmithi, Volume 5, Page 605, Hadith 3748; Abu Daoud, #4649 and #4650
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