Four Evangelists

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The four winged creatures that symbolise the Four Evangelists surround Christ in Majesty on the Romanesque tympanum of the Church of St. Trophime in Arles
The lion symbol of St. Mark from the Echternach Gospels, here without wings.

In Christian tradition the Four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles:

The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence. Convention has traditionally held the authors to have been two of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, John and Matthew, and two "apostolic men," Mark and Luke:

  • Matthew – a former tax collector who was called by Jesus to be one of the Twelve Apostles,
  • Mark – a follower of Peter and so an "apostolic man",
  • Luke – a doctor who wrote what is now the book of Luke to a friend Theophilus. Also believed to have written the book of Acts (or Acts of the Apostles) and a close friend of Paul of Tarsus,
  • John – a disciple of Jesus and possibly the youngest of his Twelve Apostles.

They are called evangelists, a word meaning people who proclaim good news, because their books aim to tell the good news of Jesus.[1]

Evangelists' symbols[edit]

The symbols of the four Evangelists are here depicted in the Book of Kells. The four winged creatures symbolize, clockwise from top left, Matthew, Mark, John, and Luke.

In iconography the evangelists often appear in Evangelist portraits derived from classical tradition, and are also frequently represented by the following symbols, which originate from the four "living creatures" that draw the throne-chariot of God, the Merkabah, in the vision in the Book of Ezekiel (Chapter 1) reflected in the Book of Revelation (4.6-9ff), though neither source links the creatures to the Evangelists. They are normally, but not invariably, all shown with wings like angels. The meanings accruing to the symbols grew over centuries, and were fully expressed by Rabanus Maurus, who set out three layers of meaning for the beasts, as representing firstly the Evangelists, secondly the nature of Christ, and thirdly the virtues required of a Christian for salvation:[2]

Each of the symbols is depicted with wings following the biblical sources first in Ezekiel 1-2, and in Revelation. The symbols are shown with, or in place of, the Evangelists in early medieval Gospel Books, and are the usual accompaniment to Christ in Majesty when portrayed during the same period, reflecting the vision in Revelations. They were presented as one of the most common motifs found on church portals and apses, as well as many other locations. When surrounding Christ, the figure of the man is usually at top left - above Christ's right hand, with the lion above Christ's left arm. Underneath the man is the ox and underneath the lion is the eagle. This both reflects the medieval idea of the order of "nobility" of nature of the beasts (man, lion, ox, eagle) and the text of Ezekiel 1.10. From the thirteenth century their use began to decline, as a new conception of Christ in Majesty, showing the wounds of the Passion, began to be used.[3] Sometimes in Evangelist portraits they appear to dictate to the writing evangelist. All four evangelists are all Jesus's disciples.

Naming[edit]

Whilst Matthew is often cited as the "first Gospel account" – not only owing to its place in the canon but also in view of the patristic witness to this effect – most scholars of Scripture see the Gospel account of Mark as having been written first (arguing for a date around the year A.D. 65, and for Matthew around A.D. 80), also see Gospel. John's Gospel account was written around A.D. 90.

It has become customary to speak of "the Gospel of Matthew" ... "the Gospel of John", not least because it is shorter and rolls much more smoothly off the tongue; but it is worth noting that the ancient titles do not use the genitive of possession, but the preposition "according to", signifying that each evangelist sets forth the one "Gospel of God" according to his own capacity, but not in the sense of creating his own story.

Depictions[edit]

See also[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ "The good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God." Mark 1:1
  2. ^ Emile Male, The Gothic Image, Religious Art in France of the Thirteen Century, p 35-7, English trans. of 3rd edn, 1913, Collins, London (and many other editions)
  3. ^ Male, op. cit.

External links[edit]

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