- Monarch – Elizabeth II
- First Minister and Keeper of the Great Seal – Alex Salmond
- Secretary of State – Jim Murphy (to 11 May 2010), Danny Alexander (12 May 2010 – 29 May 2010), Michael Moore (from 29 May).
- Lord Advocate – Elish Angiolini
- Solicitor General for Scotland – Frank Mulholland
- Advocate General for Scotland – Lord Davidson of Glen Clova; then Lord Wallace of Tankerness
- Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice General – Lord Hamilton
- Lord Justice Clerk – Lord Gill
- Chairman of the Scottish Land Court – Lord McGhie
- 5 January – Scotland as well as most of the UK is deluged by some of the heaviest snow in thirty years, causing widespread transport problems and school closures.
- 20 April – To correspond with the first ever televised leader's debates in the UK, leaders of the main political parties in Scotland including the Scottish Labour Party, Scottish Conservative Party, the Scottish Liberal Democrats and the Scottish National Party will hold a televised debate, broadcast on ITV1.
- 4 May – An ash cloud emitted from the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull causes most Scottish and Northern European airports to be closed until further notice.
- 6 May – United Kingdom general election: with no Scottish seats changing hands, Labour maintains a stronghold in Scotland holding 41 out of 59 Scottish Westminster seats. The Liberal Democrats have 11 seats, the Scottish National Party 6 seats and the Conservative Party maintain their single Scottish seat
- 15 May –
- Newly appointed Prime Minister David Cameron travels to Scotland for talks with First Minister Alex Salmond. Both later agree that the talks were "productive" and it is agreed that Cameron would address the Scottish Parliament once every year and in return, MSP's could address Commons' committees in Westminster.
- Dundee United F.C. win the Scottish Cup with a 3–0 victory over Ross County at Hampden Park.
- 29 May – Following the resignation of the Chief Secretary of the Treasury David Laws, the incumbent Liberal Democrat Scottish Secretary, Danny Alexander, assumes his position and the Deputy Leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, Michael Moore, becomes the new Scottish secretary.
- 8 June – Eight people injured after a train derails in Argyll.
- 10 June – A man dies after being shot outside his home in Lanarkshire.
- 2 July – Supporters of Stirling Albion F.C. become the first in the UK to take over ownership of their club.
- 15 November – City of Glasgow College officially launched by merger (agreed during 2009) of Central College, Glasgow Metropolitan College and Glasgow College of Nautical Studies.
- 18 November – Hugh Henry MSP wins Scottish Politician of the Year award.
- 11 December – Scottish Transport Minister Stewart Stevenson resigns amid criticism of his handling of transport chaos brought on by recent heavy snow in Scotland.
- 12 December – Keith Brown is appointed as Scottish Transport Minister following yesterday's resignation of Stewart Stevenson.
- 13 December – Major supermarkets and online stores stop taking orders in Scotland in the run up to Christmas, because of a backlog of deliveries caused by the adverse weather conditions.
- 16 December – The Scottish Government rules out re-introducing tuition fees for Scottish university students, but students from other parts of the United Kingdom attending university in Scotland may face fees of £6,000.
- 23 December – HM Advocate v Sheridan and Sheridan: former MSP Tommy Sheridan is convicted of perjury following a twelve-week trial; his wife is acquitted.
- 2 January – David R. Ross, historian (born 1958)
- 7 January – Alex Parker, football player and manager (born 1935)
- 19 January – Bill McLaren, rugby union commentator (born 1923)
- 25 January – Bill Ritchie, cartoonist (born 1931)
- 28 January – Alistair Hulett, acoustic folk singer (born 1951)
- 13 February – Jock Ferguson, Australian politician (born 1946)
- 22 February – Bobby Smith, footballer (born 1953)
- 28 February – Adam Blacklaw, footballer (born 1937)
- 4 March – Ronnie Fraser, agricultural journalist and Liberal politician (born 1929)
- 11 March – Willie MacFarlane, football player and manager (born 1930)
- 12 March – Hugh Robertson, footballer (born 1939)
- 18 March – William Wolfe, chairman of Scottish National Party (1969–1979) (born 1924)
- 22 March – James W. Black, pharmacologist, winner of 1988 Nobel prize in medicine (born 1924)
- 28 March – David Carnegie, 14th Earl of Northesk, member of the House of Lords (born 1954)
- 1 April – Morag Beaton, operatic soprano (born 1926; died in Australia)
- 8 April – James Quinn, Jesuit priest, theologian and hymnodist (born 1919)
- 9 April – Kenneth McKellar, tenor (born 1927)
- 19 April – Tom Fleming, actor (born 1927)
- 21 April – Sammy Baird, footballer (born 1930)
- 1 June – John Hagart, football player and manager (born 1937)
- 21 June – Tam White, musician and actor (born 1942)
- 10 August – Jimmy Reid, trade union activist (born 1932)
- 16 August – Bobby Thomson, American baseball player (born 1923 in Scotland)
- 17 August
- 3 September – Annie Turnbull, supercentenarian, oldest person in U.K. at date of death (born 1898)
- 28 October – Gerard Kelly, actor (born 1959)
- 25 December – Iain Noble, banker and Gaelic activist (born 1935 in Germany)
- 30 December – Jenny Wood-Allen, world record marathon runner (born 1911)
The arts and literature
- 19 September – Emma's Imagination wins the television talent show Must be the Music.
- James Robertson's novel And the Land Lay Still is published.
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- Michael Moore named new Scottish Secretary BBC News, 30 May 2010
- Williams, Martin (2 July 2010). "Albion fans first in Britain to own club". Herald Scotland. Glasgow. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
- "Cream of Scottish politics honoured at awards". heraldscotland.com. 19 November 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Scottish Transport Minister Stewart Stevenson resigns". BBC News. 11 December 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- "Keith Brown named new Scottish transport minister". BBC News. 12 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- "Tesco and Sainsbury's halt online orders in Scotland". BBC News. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- "English, Welsh and N Irish 'face Scots degree fee rise'". BBC News. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
- "Tommy Sheridan found guilty of perjury". BBC News. 23 December 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- "Banker Sir Iain Noble, champion of Gaelic, Skye and Scotland, dies at 75". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. 27 December 2010.
- "Dumfries artist Emma's Imagination wins UK talent show". BBC News. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2020.