કેલિફોર્નિયા

From Wikipedia

Template:Stack begin Template:Infobox U.S. state Template:Infobox U.S. state symbols Template:Stack endકેલિફોર્નિયા (11x11px|Listeni/ˌkælɨˈfɔrnjə/) એ યુનાઇડેટ સ્ટેટ્સની પશ્ચિમ બાજુએ આવેલું રાજ્ય છે. તે અમેરિકાનું સૌથી વધુ વસ્તી ધરાવતા રાજ્યોમાંનું એક છે,[1] અમેરિકાના આઠમાંથી ૧ માણસ અહીં રહે છે અને કુલ વસ્તી ૩.૮ કરોડ લોકોની છે. વિસ્તારની રીતે, અલાસ્કા અને ટેક્સાસ પછી તે ત્રીજું સૌથી મોટું રાજ્ય છે. કેલિફોર્નિયાની ઉત્તર ઓરેગોન, પૂર્વે નેવાડા, દક્ષિણપૂર્વે એરિઝોના અને દક્ષિણે મેક્સિકોનું સ્ટેટ ઓફ બાજા કેલિફોર્નિયા આવેલું છે. તે દેશના બીજાં અને પાંચમાં સૌથી ગીચ વસ્તી ધરાવતા પ્રદેશો (ગ્રેટર લોસ એન્જેલસ અને સાન ફ્રાન્સિસ્કો અખાત વિસ્તાર) ધરાવે છે. તેમજ દેશનાં સૌથી વધુ વસ્તી ધરાવતાં ૫૦ શહેરોમાં આઠ (લોસ એન્જેલસ, સાન ડિએગો, સાન હોશે, સાન ફ્રાન્સિસ્કો, ફ્રેસ્નો, સાક્રામાન્ટો, લોંગ બીચ અને ઓકલેન્ડ) ધરાવે છે.[2] સાક્રામાન્ટો ૧૮૫૪થી રાજ્યનું પાટનગર છે.

What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. It was then claimed by the Spanish Empire as part of Alta California in the larger territory of New Spain. Alta California became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence, but would later be ceded to the United States in 1 848 after the Mexican–American War. The western portion of Alta California was soon organized as the State of California, which was admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic change, with large-scale immigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.

California's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west, to the Sierra Nevada in the east – from the Redwood–Douglas fir forests of the northwest, to the Mojave Desert areas in the southeast. The center of the state is dominated by the Central Valley, a major agricultural area. California contains both the highest and lowest points in the contiguous United States (Mount Whitney and Death Valley), and has the 3rd longest coastline of all states (after Alaska and Florida). Earthquakes are a common occurrence because of the state's location along the Pacific Ring of Fire: about 37,000 are recorded annually, but most are too small to feel.[3]

At least half of the fruit produced in the United States is now cultivated in California, and the state also leads in the production of vegetables.[4] Other important contributors to the state's economy include aerospace, education, manufacturing, and high-tech industry. If it were a country, California would be the 8th or 9th largest economy in the world[5] and the 34th most populous.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 24, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  2. ^ "E-4 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties and the State, 2001–2009, with 2000 Benchmark". Sacramento, California: State of California, Department of Finance. May 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
  3. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Seismo.berkeley.edu. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
  4. ^ "Fruits and Vegetables, America Eats, from Life in the USA: The Complete Guide for Immigrants and Americans". Life in the USA. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
  5. ^ Jason Hanna (January 13, 2012). "Report: California slips to world's 9th largest economy". CNN. Retrieved May 31, 2013.

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